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Trends and patterns of deaths, injuries and intentional disabilities within the Libyan armed conflict: 2012-2017

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      Abstract

      Background

      The consequences of armed conflicts impose considerable burdens on the economy and health care services, particularly in countries that are not equipped to deal with them, such as in the Middle-East, and North African countries. Little is known about the burden of mortality and injury resulting from the Libyan armed conflict. This study aimed to determine the trends and patterns of mortality, injury and disabilities directly associated with the Libyan armed conflict and analyze the geographic variation within the country during 2012–2107.

      Methods

      Data on conflict-related deaths, injuries, and disabilities were obtained from the national registry offices. The information included date, place, and demographic information. A questionnaire was also used to obtain information from the affected individuals and their families. National and regional trends of mortality, injury and disabilities were calculated. Spatial analysis was performed using geographic data available on all documented cases to analyze clustering of mortality and injury.

      Results

      A total of 16,126 deaths and 42,633 injuries were recorded with complete information during the Libyan conflict from 2012 till 2017. The overall mortality rate was 2.7/1000 population and injury rate was 7.1/1000. The overall male-to-female ratio of mortality and injury was 4.4:1; 42.3% were single and aged 20–30 years old, and 26.4% were aged 31–40 years. Moreover, injuries resulted in death in 20.1% of cases and disability in 33.5% of the cases. Most of the disabilities were caused by blasts, while gun shots resulted in more deaths. The overall mortality and injury rates were highest during 2015–2017. These rates were highest in the eastern region. Injuries were most concentrated in Benghazi and Derna in the east, followed by Sert and Musrata in the central region.

      Conclusions

      Conflict-related mortality, injury and disability has inflicted a heavy burden on the Libyan society that may persist for a long time. The rates of these casualties varied in time and place. National, well-planned efforts are needed to address this serious situation and its consequences.

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      Most cited references 35

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      Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

      Summary Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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        The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

        Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made.
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          Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a nationwide survey.

          Commencing in 1998, the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been a humanitarian disaster, but has drawn little response from the international community. To document rates and trends in mortality and provide recommendations for political and humanitarian interventions, we did a nationwide mortality survey during April-July, 2004. We used a stratified three-stage, household-based cluster sampling technique. Of 511 health zones, 49 were excluded because of insecurity, and four were purposely selected to allow historical comparisons. From the remainder, probability of selection was proportional to population size. Geographical distribution and size of cluster determined how households were selected: systematic random or classic proximity sampling. Heads of households were asked about all deaths of household members during January, 2003, to April, 2004. 19,500 households were visited. The national crude mortality rate of 2.1 deaths per 1000 per month (95% CI 1.6-2.6) was 40% higher than the sub-Saharan regional level (1.5), corresponding to 600,000 more deaths than would be expected during the recall period and 38,000 excess deaths per month. Total death toll from the conflict (1998-2004) was estimated to be 3.9 million. Mortality rate was higher in unstable eastern provinces, showing the effect of insecurity. Most deaths were from easily preventable and treatable illnesses rather than violence. Regression analysis suggested that if the effects of violence were removed, all-cause mortality could fall to almost normal rates. The conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo remains the world's deadliest humanitarian crisis. To save lives, improvements in security and increased humanitarian assistance are urgently needed.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
            [2 ] Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Biotechnology, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya
            [3 ] Department of Surgery, Tripoli Medical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
            Bielefeld University, GERMANY
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1312-5956, Role: Conceptualization, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology, Role: Writing – original draft
            Role: Methodology, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Methodology, Role: Supervision
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            10 May 2019
            2019
            : 14
            : 5
            31075119
            6510427
            10.1371/journal.pone.0216061
            PONE-D-18-32756
            (Editor)
            © 2019 Daw et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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            Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 14
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            Funding
            The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Population Biology
            Population Metrics
            Death Rates
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Public and Occupational Health
            Disabilities
            People and Places
            Geographical Locations
            Africa
            Libya
            Social Sciences
            Political Science
            War and Civil Unrest
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Public and Occupational Health
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Epidemiology
            Medical Risk Factors
            Traumatic Injury Risk Factors
            Weapons
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Public and Occupational Health
            Traumatic Injury Risk Factors
            Weapons
            Engineering and Technology
            Equipment
            Weapons
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            Asia
            Iraq
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            Asia
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