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      Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors with efficient antifouling properties applied in glycoprofiling of human serum samples.

      Analytical Chemistry

      Surface Properties, Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques, Protein Conformation, metabolism, Plant Lectins, Models, Molecular, Microscopy, Atomic Force, Humans, chemistry, Gold, blood, Glycoproteins, methods, Biosensing Techniques, prevention & control, Biofouling

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          Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors recognizing different glycan entities on serum glycoproteins were constructed. Lectins were immobilized on a novel mixed self-assembled monolayer containing 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid for covalent immobilization of lectins and betaine terminated thiol to resist nonspecific interactions. Construction of biosensors based on Concanavalin A (Con A), Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA), and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) on polycrystalline gold electrodes was optimized and characterized with a battery of tools including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, various electrochemical techniques, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compared with a protein/lectin microarray. The lectin biosensors were able to detect glycoproteins from 1 fM (Con A), 10 fM (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), or 100 fM (SNA) with a linear range spanning 6 (SNA), 7 (RCA), or 8 (Con A) orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a detection limit for the Con A biosensor down to 1 aM was achieved in a sandwich configuration. A nonspecific binding of proteins for the Con A biosensor was only 6.1% (probed with an oxidized invertase) of the signal toward its analyte invertase and a negligible nonspecific interaction of the Con A biosensor was observed in diluted human sera (1000×), as well. The performance of the lectin biosensors was finally tested by glycoprofiling of human serum samples from healthy individuals and those having rheumatoid arthritis, which resulted in a distinct glycan pattern between these two groups.

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