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      Brain Alterations in Autoimmune and Pharmacological Models of Diabetes Mellitus: Focus on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Disturbances

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          Abstract

          Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is linked to an ‘encephalopathy’ explained by some features common to the aging process, degenerative and functional disorders of the central nervous system. In the present study we describe a manifest hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in two different experimental mouse models of T1D including the pharmacological one induced by streptozotocin and the spontaneous NOD (nonobese diabetic mice). The high expression of hypothalamic hormones like oxytocin and vasopressin were part to this alteration, together with elevated adrenal glucocorticoids and prominent susceptibility to stress. In the hippocampus of diabetic animals a marked astrogliosis, often associated with neural damage, was present. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis was also affected by the disease: proliferation and differentiation measured by bromodeoxyuridine immunodetection were significantly reduced in both experimental models used. Several facts, including changes associated with chronic hyperglycemia, hyperstimulation of the HPA axis, increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids in combination with brain inflammation and low production of new neurons, contribute to emphasize the impact of diabetes on the central nervous system.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Milestones of neuronal development in the adult hippocampus.

          Adult hippocampal neurogenesis originates from precursor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and results in new granule cell neurons. We propose a model of the development that takes place between these two fixed points and identify several developmental milestones. From a presumably bipotent radial-glia-like stem cell (type-1 cell) with astrocytic properties, development progresses over at least two stages of amplifying lineage-determined progenitor cells (type-2 and type-3 cells) to early postmitotic and to mature neurons. The selection process, during which new neurons are recruited into function, and other regulatory influences differentially affect the different stages of development.
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            Type 1 diabetes

             Denis Daneman (2006)
            Type 1 diabetes accounts for only about 5-10% of all cases of diabetes; however, its incidence continues to increase worldwide and it has serious short-term and long-term implications. The disorder has a strong genetic component, inherited mainly through the HLA complex, but the factors that trigger onset of clinical disease remain largely unknown. Management of type 1 diabetes is best undertaken in the context of a multidisciplinary health team and requires continuing attention to many aspects, including insulin administration, blood glucose monitoring, meal planning, and screening for comorbid conditions and diabetes-related complications. These complications consist of microvascular and macrovascular disease, which account for the major morbidity and mortality associated with type 1 diabetes. Newer treatment approaches have facilitated improved outcomes in terms of both glycaemic control and reduced risks for development of complications. Nonetheless, major challenges remain in the development of approaches to the prevention and management of type 1 diabetes and its complications.
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              Diabetes impairs hippocampal function through glucocorticoid-mediated effects on new and mature neurons.

              Many organ systems are adversely affected by diabetes, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline. Although diabetes influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the role of this neuroendocrine system in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that, in both insulin-deficient rats and insulin-resistant mice, diabetes impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, perforant path synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis, and the adrenal steroid corticosterone contributes to these adverse effects. Rats treated with streptozocin have reduced insulin and show hyperglycemia, increased corticosterone, and impairments in hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. Similar deficits are observed in db/db mice, which are characterized by insulin resistance, elevated corticosterone and obesity. Changes in hippocampal plasticity and function in both models are reversed when normal physiological levels of corticosterone are maintained, suggesting that cognitive impairment in diabetes may result from glucocorticoid-mediated deficits in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8608-5
                978-3-8055-8609-2
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2008
                July 2008
                29 July 2008
                : 15
                : 1
                : 61-67
                Affiliations
                aNeuroendocrine Biochemistry, Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, CONICET National Research Council and bDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; cCNRS 7059, Paris-Diderot University, Paris, France; dDivisionof Medical Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                135625 Neuroimmunomodulation 2008;15:61–67
                10.1159/000135625
                18667801
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 73, Pages: 7
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