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      Cyphocoleus Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Odacanthini): descriptive taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships, and the Cenozoic history of New Caledonia

      Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The precinctive New Caledonian genus Cyphocoleus Chaudoir is revised with 22 species recognized, 12 newly described: C. lissus sp. n., C. prolixus sp. n., C. parovicollis sp. n., C. burwelli sp. n., C. angustatus sp. n., C. monteithi sp. n., C. fasciatus sp. n., C. lescheni Liebherr & Will, sp. n., C. cordatus sp. n., C. bourailensis sp. n., C. subulatus sp. n., and C. iledespinsensis sp. n. Atongolium Park & Will is found to be a junior synonym of Cyphocoleus, with its two species recombined as C. mirabilis comb. n. and C. moorei comb. n. Results of a survey of Harpalinae Bonelli place Cyphocoleus as a member of Odacanthini based on synapomorphies of the eighth abdominal tergite and the female spermathecal assembly. Cyphocoleus shares with five other generic-level taxa – Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte, Quammenis Erwin and Diplacanthogaster Liebke – a single-segmented maxillary galea that is appressed to the outer margin of the maxillary lacinia. These six generic-level taxa are newly classified as members of subtribe Homethina subtrib. n. (type genus Homethes). Cladistic analysis including 79 taxa and utilizing 119 morphological characters supports division of Odacanthini into four monophyletic subtribes: 1, Actenonycina (Actenonyx White); 2, Homethina; 3, Pentagonicina (Pentagonica Dana, Parascopodes Darlington, Scopodes Erichson); and 4, Odacanthina (24 genera in this analysis monophyletically defined by Lasiocera Dejean and its adelphotaxon). These subtribes are phylogenetically arranged as: (Actenonycina (Homethina (Pentagonicina + Odacanthina). Area relationships defined within Homethina – (New Caledonia (Australia (South America + Central America))) – support the origin of New Caledonian Cyphocoleus prior to amphiantarctic vicariance between South America and Australia. Consistent with previous molecular dating of 100–105 Ma for the origin of Odacanthini, a general vicariance-based hypothesis proposes that New Zealandian Actenonyx and New Caledonian Cyphocoleus were emplaced on Zealandia prior to the completion of rifting between Zealandia and Australia during Late Cretaceous, and that both fragments of Zealandia remained subaerial throughout the Cenozoic. Alternatively, under a very specific time-constrained biogeographic hypothesis ladened with an added assumption of dispersal, the ancestor of Cyphocoleus could have colonized New Caledonia during a 2–5 Ma period after its proposed subaerial reemergence at 37 Ma. A clade within Cyphocoleus synapomorphously exhibits an environmental patina: a varnish-like coating to the dorsal body surface that is hypothesized to enable crypsis of the adult beetle. Several specializations of elytral setae are also synapomorphies of this clade, suggesting evolutionary association of the patina and the setal specializations.

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          Most cited references 20

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          The Parsimony Ratchet, a New Method for Rapid Parsimony Analysis

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            Southern hemisphere biogeography inferred by event-based models: plant versus animal patterns.

            The Southern Hemisphere has traditionally been considered as having a fundamentally vicariant history. The common trans-Pacific disjunctions are usually explained by the sequential breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana during the last 165 million years, causing successive division of an ancestral biota. However, recent biogeographic studies, based on molecular estimates and more accurate paleogeographic reconstructions, indicate that dispersal may have been more important than traditionally assumed. We examined the relative roles played by vicariance and dispersal in shaping Southern Hemisphere biotas by analyzing a large data set of 54 animal and 19 plant phylogenies, including marsupials, ratites, and southern beeches (1,393 terminals). Parsimony-based tree fitting in conjunction with permutation tests was used to examine to what extent Southern Hemisphere biogeographic patterns fit the breakup sequence of Gondwana and to identify concordant dispersal patterns. Consistent with other studies, the animal data are congruent with the geological sequence of Gondwana breakup: (Africa(New Zealand(southern South America, Australia))). Trans-Antarctic dispersal (Australia southern South America) is also significantly more frequent than any other dispersal event in animals, which may be explained by the long period of geological contact between Australia and South America via Antarctica. In contrast, the dominant pattern in plants, (southern South America(Australia, New Zealand)), is better explained by dispersal, particularly the prevalence of trans-Tasman dispersal between New Zealand and Australia. Our results also confirm the hybrid origin of the South American biota: there has been surprisingly little biotic exchange between the northern tropical and the southern temperate regions of South America, especially for animals.
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              Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway.

              Uranium-lead geochronology in detrital zircons and provenance analyses in eight boreholes and two surface stratigraphic sections in the northern Andes provide insight into the time of closure of the Central American Seaway. The timing of this closure has been correlated with Plio-Pleistocene global oceanographic, atmospheric, and biotic events. We found that a uniquely Panamanian Eocene detrital zircon fingerprint is pronounced in middle Miocene fluvial and shallow marine strata cropping out in the northern Andes but is absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata. We contend that this fingerprint demonstrates a fluvial connection, and therefore the absence of an intervening seaway, between the Panama arc and South America in middle Miocene times; the Central American Seaway had vanished by that time.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift
                DEZ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-1324
                1435-1951
                November 18 2016
                November 18 2016
                : 63
                : 2
                : 211-270
                Article
                10.3897/dez.63.10241
                © 2016

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