The genus Caeculus Dufour ( Prostigmata , Caeculidae ) contains 19 previously described species, most of which are found in North America, and for which no comprehensive phylogenetic treatment exists. Here, one new species from Alberta, Canada, is described: Caeculus cassiopeiae Bernard & Lumley, sp. nov., and another caeculid known to be present in Canada is documented. The new species is characterized within the genus with a character state matrix, from which an updated key is produced. A systematic analysis of all 20 species based on morphological and geographical distribution traits obtained from literature represents the first phylogenetic review of the genus.