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      Molecular identification of trypanosomes in cattle in Malawi using PCR methods and nanopore sequencing: epidemiological implications for the control of human and animal trypanosomiases Translated title: Identification moléculaire des trypanosomes chez les bovins du Malawi, à l’aide de méthodes de PCR et du séquençage par nanopores : implication épidémiologique pour le contrôle des trypanosomiases humaines et animales

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          Abstract

          This study aimed to identify trypanosomes infecting cattle in Malawi in order to understand the importance of cattle in the transmission dynamics of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT). A total of 446 DNA samples from cattle blood from three regions of Malawi were screened for African trypanosomes by ITS1 PCR. The obtained amplicons were sequenced using a portable next-generation sequencer, MinION, for validation. Comparison of the results from ITS1 PCR and MinION sequencing showed that combining the two methods provided more accurate species identification than ITS1 PCR alone. Further PCR screening targeting the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene was conducted to detect Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Trypanosoma congolense was the most prevalent Trypanosoma sp., which was found in Nkhotakota (10.8%; 20 of 185), followed by Kasungu (2.5%; 5 of 199). Of note, the prevalence of T. b. rhodesiense detected by SRA PCR was high in Kasungu and Nkhotakota showing 9.5% (19 of 199) and 2.7% (5 of 185), respectively. We report the presence of animal African trypanosomes and T. b. rhodesiense from cattle at the human–livestock–wildlife interface for the first time in Malawi. Our results confirmed that animal trypanosomes are important causes of anemia in cattle and that cattle are potential reservoirs for human African trypanosomiasis in Malawi.

          Translated abstract

          Cette étude visait à identifier les trypanosomes infectant les bovins au Malawi afin de comprendre l’importance des bovins dans la dynamique de transmission de la trypanosomiase humaine africaine (THA) et de la trypanosomose animale africaine (TAA). Au total, 446 échantillons d’ADN de sang de bovins provenant de trois régions du Malawi ont été soumis à un dépistage des trypanosomes africains par PCR de l’ITS1. Les amplicons obtenus ont été séquencés à l’aide d’un séquenceur portable de nouvelle génération, MinION, pour validation. La comparaison des résultats de la PCR de l’ITS1 et de la séquence MinION a montré que la combinaison des deux méthodes permettait une identification plus précise des espèces que la seule PCR de l’ITS1. Un autre dépistage par PCR ciblant le gène SRA (associé à la résistance du sérum) a été effectué pour détecter Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Trypanosoma congolense était l’espèce de trypanosome la plus répandue, trouvée à Nkhotakota (10,8 % ; 20 sur 185), suivi de Kasungu (2,5 % ; 5 sur 199). Notamment, la prévalence de T. b. rhodesiense détectée par PCR de SRA était élevée à Kasungu et Nkhotakota, avec respectivement 9,5 % (19 sur 199) et 2,7 % (5 sur 185). Nous rapportons la présence de trypanosomes animaux africains et de T. b. rhodesiense de bovins à l’interface homme-bétail-faune sauvage, pour la première fois au Malawi. Nos résultats confirment que les trypanosomes animaux sont des causes importantes d’anémie chez les bovins et que les bovins sont des réservoirs potentiels pour la trypanosomiase humaine africaine au Malawi.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Human African trypanosomiasis.

          Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by tsetse flies. Almost all cases are due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is indigenous to west and central Africa. Prevalence is strongly dependent on control measures, which are often neglected during periods of political instability, thus leading to resurgence. With fewer than 12 000 cases of this disabling and fatal disease reported per year, trypanosomiasis belongs to the most neglected tropical diseases. The clinical presentation is complex, and diagnosis and treatment difficult. The available drugs are old, complicated to administer, and can cause severe adverse reactions. New diagnostic methods and safe and effective drugs are urgently needed. Vector control, to reduce the number of flies in existing foci, needs to be organised on a pan-African basis. WHO has stated that if national control programmes, international organisations, research institutes, and philanthropic partners engage in concerted action, elimination of this disease might even be possible. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

            Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis, where the animal reservoir plays a key role, the interruption of the disease’s transmission is not deemed feasible.
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              Human African trypanosomiasis.

              Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a parasitic infection that almost invariably progresses to death unless treated. Human African trypanosomiasis caused devastating epidemics during the 20th century. Thanks to sustained and coordinated efforts over the past 15 years, the number of reported cases has fallen to an historically low level. Fewer than 3000 cases were reported in 2015, and the disease is targeted for elimination by WHO. Despite these recent successes, the disease is still endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where it is a considerable burden on rural communities, most notably in central Africa. Since patients are also reported from non-endemic countries, human African trypanosomiasis should be considered in differential diagnosis for travellers, tourists, migrants, and expatriates who have visited or lived in endemic areas. In the absence of a vaccine, disease control relies on case detection and treatment, and vector control. Available drugs are suboptimal, but ongoing clinical trials provide hope for safer and simpler treatments.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                20 July 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University Kita-20, Nishi-10, Kita-ku Sapporo 001-0020 Hokkaido Japan
                [2 ] Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Hokkaido University Kita-18, Nishi-9, Kita-ku Sapporo 060-0818 Hokkaido Japan
                [3 ] Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Malawi P/Bag 360 Chichiri 30096 Blantyre 3 Malawi
                [4 ] International Collaboration Unit, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University Kita-20, Nishi-10, Kita-ku Sapporo 001-0020 Hokkaido Japan
                Author notes
                [a]

                Megasari Marsela and Kyoko Hayashida contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Corresponding author: junya@ 123456czc.hokudai.ac.jp
                Article
                parasite190156 10.1051/parasite/2020043
                10.1051/parasite/2020043
                7370688
                © M. Marsela et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 65, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

                cattle, epidemiology, aat, hat, malawi, trypanosome

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