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      Adjuvantic cytokine IL-33 improves the protective immunity of cocktailed DNA vaccine of ROP5 and ROP18 against toxoplasma gondii infection in mice Translated title: La cytokine IL-33 utilisée comme adjuvant améliore l’immunité protectrice du vaccin à cocktail d’ADN de ROP5 et ROP18 contre l’infection à Toxoplasma gondii chez la souris

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          Abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii is a threat for immunocompromized individuals, and no treatment is available for enhancing immunity against infection. Molecular adjuvants may improve the efficacy of DNA vaccine-induced T cell immunity. Here, we report that cocktailed DNA immunization with ROP5 and ROP18 boosted immune responses induced by a single DNA immunization with ROP5 or ROP18, but also that co-administration of molecular adjuvant IL-33 enhanced immune efficacy induced by this cocktailed DNA vaccination. These improved immune responses were characterized by higher Toxoplasma-specific IgG2a titers, Th1 responses associated with the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, as well as cell-mediated activity with higher frequencies of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. More importantly, this enhanced immunity has the ability to confer remarkable protection against a high dose lethal challenge of the T. gondii RH strain and thus against chronic infection with the T. gondii PRU strain. These data show that IL-33 is a promising immunoadjuvant to facilitate humoral as well as cellular immunity in a vaccine setting against T. gondii, and suggest that it should be evaluated in strategies against other apicomplexan parasites.

          Translated abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii est une menace pour les individus immunodéprimés et aucun traitement n’est disponible pour renforcer l’immunité contre l’infection. Les adjuvants moléculaires peuvent améliorer l’efficacité de l’immunité des cellules T induite par un vaccin à ADN. Ici, nous rapportons que l’immunisation par le cocktail d’ADN de ROP5 et ROP18 a stimulé les réponses immunitaires induites par une seule immunisation par l’ADN de ROP5 ou ROP18, mais aussi que la co-administration de l’adjuvant moléculaire IL-33 a amélioré l’efficacité immunitaire induite par cette vaccination par cocktail d’ADN. Ces réponses immunitaires améliorées ont été caractérisées par des titres d’IgG2a spécifiques à Toxoplasma plus élevés, des réponses Th1 associées à la production d’IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12 ainsi qu’une activité à médiation cellulaire où les fréquences des cellules T CD8+ et CD4+ étaient plus élevées. Plus important encore, cette immunité renforcée a la capacité de conférer une protection remarquable contre une provocation létale par haute dose de la souche RH de T. gondii et donc contre une infection chronique par la souche PRU de T. gondii. Ces données montrent qu’IL-33 est un immunoadjuvant prometteur pour faciliter l’immunité humorale et cellulaire dans un contexte de vaccination contre T. gondii et suggèrent qu’il devrait être évalué dans des stratégies contre d’autres parasites apicomplexes.

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          Most cited references 36

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          The alarmin interleukin-33 drives protective antiviral CD8⁺ T cell responses.

          Pathogen-associated molecular patterns decisively influence antiviral immune responses, whereas the contribution of endogenous signals of tissue damage, also known as damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins, remains ill defined. We show that interleukin-33 (IL-33), an alarmin released from necrotic cells, is necessary for potent CD8(+) T cell (CTL) responses to replicating, prototypic RNA and DNA viruses in mice. IL-33 signaled through its receptor on activated CTLs, enhanced clonal expansion in a CTL-intrinsic fashion, determined plurifunctional effector cell differentiation, and was necessary for virus control. Moreover, recombinant IL-33 augmented vaccine-induced CTL responses. Radio-resistant cells of the splenic T cell zone produced IL-33, and efficient CTL responses required IL-33 from radio-resistant cells but not from hematopoietic cells. Thus, alarmin release by radio-resistant cells orchestrates protective antiviral CTL responses.
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            DNA vaccines: an historical perspective and view to the future.

             Aiqin Liu (2010)
            This review provides a detailed look at the attributes and immunologic mechanisms of plasmid DNA vaccines and their utility as laboratory tools as well as potential human vaccines. The immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccines in a variety of preclinical models is used to illustrate how they differ from traditional vaccines in novel ways due to the in situ antigen production and the ease with which they are constructed. The ability to make new DNA vaccines without needing to handle a virulent pathogen or to adapt the pathogen for manufacturing purposes demonstrates the potential value of this vaccine technology for use against emerging and epidemic pathogens. Similarly, personalized anti-tumor DNA vaccines can also readily be made from a biopsy. Because DNA vaccines bias the T-helper (Th) cell response to a Th1 phenotype, DNA vaccines are also under development for vaccines against allergy and autoimmune diseases. The licensure of four animal health products, including two prophylactic vaccines against infectious diseases, one immunotherapy for cancer, and one gene therapy delivery of a hormone for a food animal, provides evidence of the efficacy of DNA vaccines in multiple species including horses and pigs. The size of these target animals provides evidence that the somewhat disappointing immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in a number of human clinical trials is not due simply to the larger mass of humans compared with most laboratory animals. The insights gained from the mechanisms of protection in the animal vaccines, the advances in the delivery and expression technologies for increasing the potency of DNA vaccines, and encouragingly potent human immune responses in certain clinical trials, provide insights for future efforts to develop DNA vaccines into a broadly useful vaccine and immunotherapy platform with applications for human and animal health. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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              Immune response and immunopathology during toxoplasmosis.

              Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary significance that is able to infect any warm-blooded vertebrate host. In addition to its importance to public health, several inherent features of the biology of T. gondii have made it an important model organism to study host-pathogen interactions. One factor is the genetic tractability of the parasite, which allows studies on the microbial factors that affect virulence and allows the development of tools that facilitate immune studies. Additionally, mice are natural hosts for T. gondii, and the availability of numerous reagents to study the murine immune system makes this an ideal experimental system to understand the functions of cytokines and effector mechanisms involved in immunity to intracellular microorganisms. In this article, we will review current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses required for resistance to toxoplasmosis, the events that lead to the development of immunopathology, and the natural regulatory mechanisms that limit excessive inflammation during this infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                21 April 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Ningbo University School of Medicine Ningbo Zhejiang Province PR China
                [2 ] Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The Affiliated Hospital of Ningbo University Medical School Ningbo Zhejiang Province PR China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: chenjia@ 123456nbu.edu.cn
                Article
                parasite190121 10.1051/parasite/2020021
                10.1051/parasite/2020021
                7174000
                32315596
                © Y.-C. Zhu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

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