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      Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Neurofeedback (NF) could help to improve attentional and self-management capabilities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In a randomised controlled trial, NF training was found to be superior to a computerised attention skills training (AST) (Gevensleben et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50(7):780–789, 2009). In the present paper, treatment effects at 6-month follow-up were studied. 94 children with ADHD, aged 8–12 years, completed either 36 sessions of NF training ( n = 59) or a computerised AST ( n = 35). Pre-training, post-training and follow-up assessment encompassed several behaviour rating scales (e.g., the German ADHD rating scale, FBB-HKS) completed by parents. Follow-up information was analysed in 61 children (ca. 65%) on a per-protocol basis. 17 children (of 33 dropouts) had started a medication after the end of the training or early in the follow-up period. Improvements in the NF group ( n = 38) at follow-up were superior to those of the control group ( n = 23) and comparable to the effects at the end of the training. For the FBB-HKS total score (primary outcome measure), a medium effect size of 0.71 was obtained at follow-up. A reduction of at least 25% in the primary outcome measure (responder criterion) was observed in 50% of the children in the NF group. In conclusion, behavioural improvements induced by NF training in children with ADHD were maintained at a 6-month follow-up. Though treatment effects appear to be limited, the results confirm the notion that NF is a clinically efficacious module in the treatment of children with ADHD.

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          Extending the CONSORT statement to randomized trials of nonpharmacologic treatment: explanation and elaboration.

          Adequate reporting of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) is necessary to allow accurate critical appraisal of the validity and applicability of the results. The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement, a 22-item checklist and flow diagram, is intended to address this problem by improving the reporting of RCTs. However, some specific issues that apply to trials of nonpharmacologic treatments (for example, surgery, technical interventions, devices, rehabilitation, psychotherapy, and behavioral intervention) are not specifically addressed in the CONSORT Statement. Furthermore, considerable evidence suggests that the reporting of nonpharmacologic trials still needs improvement. Therefore, the CONSORT group developed an extension of the CONSORT Statement for trials assessing nonpharmacologic treatments. A consensus meeting of 33 experts was organized in Paris, France, in February 2006, to develop an extension of the CONSORT Statement for trials of nonpharmacologic treatments. The participants extended 11 items from the CONSORT Statement, added 1 item, and developed a modified flow diagram. To allow adequate understanding and implementation of the CONSORT extension, the CONSORT group developed this elaboration and explanation document from a review of the literature to provide examples of adequate reporting. This extension, in conjunction with the main CONSORT Statement and other CONSORT extensions, should help to improve the reporting of RCTs performed in this field.
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            A solution for reliable and valid reduction of ocular artifacts, applied to the P300 ERP.

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              The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study.

              To determine any long-term effects, 6 and 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; N = 436); to test whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom trajectory through 3 years predicts outcome in subsequent years; and to examine functioning level of the MTA adolescents relative to their non-ADHD peers (local normative comparison group; N = 261). Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts at 6 and 8 years tested a wide range of symptom and impairment variables assessed by parent, teacher, and youth report. In nearly every analysis, the originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on repeated measures or newly analyzed variables (e.g., grades earned in school, arrests, psychiatric hospitalizations, other clinically relevant outcomes). Medication use decreased by 62% after the 14-month controlled trial, but adjusting for this did not change the results. ADHD symptom trajectory in the first 3 years predicted 55% of the outcomes. The MTA participants fared worse than the local normative comparison group on 91% of the variables tested. Type or intensity of 14 months of treatment for ADHD in childhood (at age 7.0-9.9 years) does not predict functioning 6 to 8 years later. Rather, early ADHD symptom trajectory regardless of treatment type is prognostic. This finding implies that children with behavioral and sociodemographic advantage, with the best response to any treatment, will have the best long-term prognosis. As a group, however, despite initial symptom improvement during treatment that is largely maintained after treatment, children with combined-type ADHD exhibit significant impairment in adolescence. Innovative treatment approaches targeting specific areas of adolescent impairment are needed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49-89-99991116 , +49-89-99991111 , hheinri@arcor.de
                Journal
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1018-8827
                1435-165X
                25 May 2010
                25 May 2010
                September 2010
                : 19
                : 9
                : 715-724
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Göttingen, v.Siebold-Str. 5, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6+10, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
                [3 ]Heckscher-Klinikum, Deisenhofener Straße 28, 81539 Munich, Germany
                109
                10.1007/s00787-010-0109-5
                3128749
                20499120
                © Springer-Verlag 2010
                Categories
                Original Contribution
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag 2010

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