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      Long-term outcomes and prognostic analysis of modified open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion in treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

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          The purpose of the present study was to explore and analyze the long-term outcomes and factors that affect the prognosis of expansive open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion in treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).


          We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients with multilevel CSM who had undergone expansive open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screws fixation and fusion in our hospital between February 2008 and February 2012. The average follow-up period was 4.6 years. The clinical data of patients, including age, sex, operation records, pre- and postoperation Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, cervical spine canal stenosis, and cervical curvature, were collected. Increased signal intensity (ISI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament were also observed. Paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effectiveness and recovery of neuronal function. The prognostic factors were analyzed with multivariable linear regression model.


          Forty-nine patients with CSM with a mean age of 59.44 years were enrolled in this study. The average of preoperative JOA score was 9.14±2.25, and postoperative JOA score was 15.31±1.73. There was significant difference between the pre- and postoperative JOA scores. The clinical improvement rate was 80.27%. On follow-up, five patients had complaints of neck and shoulder pain, but no evidence of C5 nerve palsy was found. Developmental cervical spine canal stenosis was present in all patients before surgery. Before surgery, ISI was observed in eight patients, while ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was found in 12 patients. The average of preoperative cervical curvature was 21.27°±8.37° and postoperative cervical curvature was 20.09°±1.29°, and there was no significant difference between the pre- and postoperative cervical curvatures. Multivariable linear regression analysis results showed that the postoperation JOA scores were significantly affected by age, preoperative JOA scores, and preoperative ISI. Except one case of epidural hematoma, there were no complications associated with the surgery.


          Treatment of CSM with posterior open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion is effective with few complications. In addition, the normal cervical lordosis was well maintained. Age, preoperative JOA scores, and preoperative ISI were the independent factors that significantly affect disease prognosis and surgical outcomes.

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          Correlation between operative outcomes of cervical compression myelopathy and mri of the spinal cord.

          Magnetic resonance images of cervical compression myelopathy were retrospectively analyzed in comparison with surgical outcomes. To investigate which magnetic resonance findings in patients with cervical compression myelopathy reflect the clinical symptoms and prognosis, and to determine the radiographic and clinical factors that correlate with the prognosis. Signal intensity changes of the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging in chronic cervical myelopathy are thought to be indicative of the prognosis. However, the prognostic significance of signal intensity change remains controversial. The participants in this study were 73 patients who underwent cervical expansive laminoplasty for cervical compression myelopathy. Their mean age was 64 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 3.4 years. The pathologic conditions were cervical spondylotic myelopathy in 42 patients and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in 31 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (spin-echo sequence) was performed in all the patients. The transverse area of the spinal cord at the site of maximal compression was computed, and spinal cord signal intensity changes were evaluated before and after surgery. Three patterns of spinal cord signal intensity changes on T1-weighted sequences/T2-weighted sequences were detected as follows: normal/normal, normal/high-signal intensity changes, and low-signal/high-signal intensity changes. Surgical outcomes were compared among these three groups. The most useful combination of parameters for predicting prognosis was determined using a stepwise regression analysis. The findings showed 2 patients with normal/normal, 67 patients with normal/high-signal, and 4 patients with low-signal/high-signal change patterns before surgery. Regarding postoperative recovery, the preoperative low-signal/high-signal group was significantly inferior to the preoperative normal/high-signal group. There was no significant difference between the transverse area of the spinal cord at the site of maximal compression in the normal/high-signal group and the low-signal/high-signal group. A stepwise regression analysis showed that the best combination of surgical outcome predictors included age (correlation coefficient R = -0.348), preoperative signal pattern, and duration of symptoms (correlation coefficient R = -0.231). The low-signal intensity changes on T1-weighted sequences indicated a poor prognosis. The authors speculate that high-signal intensity changes on T2 weighted images include a broad spectrum of compressive myelomalacic pathologies and reflect a broad spectrum of spinal cord recuperative potentials. Predictors of surgical outcomes are preoperative signal intensity change pattern of the spinal cord on radiologic evaluations, age at the time of surgery, and chronicity of the disease.
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            Minimum 10-year followup after en bloc cervical laminoplasty.

            The long-term outcome (> 10 years) after cervical laminoplasty was assessed and the postoperative problems were clarified. One hundred thirty-three patients had laminoplasty between 1981 and 1989 for treatment of cervical myelopathy and 126 patients were available for the current study. The clinical results were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic findings were analyzed by postural anomalies and range of motion. The average preoperative score was 9.1 points, and the postoperative score improved to 13.7 points within a year. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and recovery rate were maintained at 13.4 points and 55.1% at the last followup. In 20 patients, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score worsened during the followup. The causes of deterioration were axial spread of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, other spinal lesions, cerebral infarction, and peripheral neuropathy. Postoperative cervical radiculopathy occurred in nine patients. Postoperative radiculopathy resolved in five patients, but remained in four patients. Kyphotic changes were observed in eight patients. The recovery rate in patients with kyphosis was poor. The postoperative range of motion decreased to 25.1% of preoperative range of motion. Sixty one percent of patients had a reduction of range of motion. Satisfactory results of cervical laminoplasty were maintained for more than 10 years after surgery; however, there were several postoperative problems, such as neurologic deterioration, postoperative radiculopathy, progression of kyphosis, and range of motion limitation.
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              The incidence of C5 palsy after multilevel cervical decompression procedures: a review of 750 consecutive cases.

              Retrospective review of 750 consecutive multilevel cervical spine decompression surgeries performed by a single spine surgeon. To determine the incidence of C5 palsy in a large consecutive series of multilevel cervical spine decompression procedures. Palsy of the C5 nerve is a well-known potential complication of cervical spine surgery with reported rates ranging from 0% to 30%. The etiology remains uncertain but has been attributed to iatrogenic injury during surgery, tethering from shifting of the spinal cord, spinal cord ischemia, and reperfusion injury of the spinal cord. We included patients undergoing multilevel cervical corpectomy, corpectomy with posterior fusion, posterior laminectomy and fusion, and laminoplasty. Exclusion criteria included lack of follow-up data, spinal cord injury preventing preoperative or postoperative motor testing, or surgery not involving the C5 level. Incidence of C5 palsy was determined and compared to determine whether significant differences existed among the various procedures, patient age, sex, revision surgery, preoperative weakness, diabetes, smoking, number of levels decompressed, and history of previous upper extremity surgery. Of the 750 patients, 120 were eliminated on the basis of the exclusion criteria. The 630 patients included in the analysis consisted of 292 females and 338 males. The mean age was 58 years (range, 19-87). The incidence of C5 nerve palsy for the entire group was 42 of 630 (6.7%). The incidence was highest for the laminectomy and fusion group (9.5%), followed by the corpectomy with posterior fusion group (8.4%), the corpectomy group (5.1%), and finally the laminoplasty group (4.8%), although these differences did not reach statistical significance. There was a significantly higher incidence in males (8.6% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.05). Incidence of C5 nerve palsy after cervical spine decompression was 6.7%. This is consistent with previously published studies and represents the largest series of North American patients to date. There is no statistically significant difference in incidence of C5 palsy based on surgical procedure, although there was a trend toward higher rates with laminectomy and fusion.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                31 August 2016
                : 12
                : 1329-1337
                Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Xicheng District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong Yang; Ai Guo, Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, No 95, Yong’an Road, Xicheng District 100050, Beijing, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 6313 8353, Fax +86 10 8391 1029, Email spineyang@ 123456126.com ; guoaij@ 123456139.com
                © 2016 Su et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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