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      Cardiac Remodeling: Concepts, Clinical Impact, Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Pharmacologic Treatment

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          Cardiac remodeling is defined as a group of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury. The process results in poor prognosis because of its association with ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. Here, we discuss the concepts and clinical implications of cardiac remodeling, and the pathophysiological role of different factors, including cell death, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, collagen, contractile proteins, calcium transport, geometry and neurohormonal activation. Finally, the article describes the pharmacological treatment of cardiac remodeling, which can be divided into three different stages of strategies: consolidated, promising and potential strategies.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Role of oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.

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            Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure.

             F. Giordano (2005)
            A constant supply of oxygen is indispensable for cardiac viability and function. However, the role of oxygen and oxygen-associated processes in the heart is complex, and they and can be either beneficial or contribute to cardiac dysfunction and death. As oxygen is a major determinant of cardiac gene expression, and a critical participant in the formation of ROS and numerous other cellular processes, consideration of its role in the heart is essential in understanding the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction.
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              Molecular mechanisms of myocardial remodeling.

               B Swynghedauw (1998)
              "Remodeling" implies changes that result in rearrangement of normally existing structures. This review focuses only on permanent modifications in relation to clinical dysfunction in cardiac remodeling (CR) secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) and/or arterial hypertension and includes a special section on the senescent heart, since CR is mainly a disease of the elderly. From a biological point of view, CR is determined by 1 ) the general process of adaptation which allows both the myocyte and the collagen network to adapt to new working conditions; 2) ventricular fibrosis, i.e., increased collagen concentration, which is multifactorial and caused by senescence, ischemia, various hormones, and/or inflammatory processes; 3) cell death, a parameter linked to fibrosis, which is usually due to necrosis and apoptosis and occurs in nearly all models of CR. The process of adaptation is associated with various changes in genetic expression, including a general activation that causes hypertrophy, isogenic shifts which result in the appearance of a slow isomyosin, and a new Na+-K+-ATPase with a low affinity for sodium, reactivation of genes encoding for atrial natriuretic factor and the renin-angiotensin system, and a diminished concentration of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, beta-adrenergic receptors, and the potassium channel responsible for transient outward current. From a clinical point of view, fibrosis is for the moment a major marker for cardiac failure and a crucial determinant of myocardial heterogeneity, increasing diastolic stiffness, and the propensity for reentry arrhythmias. In addition, systolic dysfunction is facilitated by slowing of the calcium transient and the downregulation of the entire adrenergic system. Modifications of intracellular calcium movements are the main determinants of the triggered activity and automaticity that cause arrhythmias and alterations in relaxation.

                Author and article information

                Arq Bras Cardiol
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia
                January 2016
                January 2016
                : 106
                : 1
                : 62-69
                Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, São Paulo, SP - Brazil
                Author notes
                Mailing Address: Leonardo Antônio Mamede Zornoff, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Rubião Jr. Postal Code 18618-970, Botucatu, SP - Brazil. E-mail: lzornoff@ , lzornoff@

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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