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      Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults : Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d2639235e111">Early identification of cognitive impairment may improve patient and caregiver health outcomes. </p>

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          Most cited references177

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          Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment.

          Mild cognitive impairment is a transitional state between the cognitive changes of normal aging and early Alzheimer's disease. In a double-blind study, we evaluated subjects with the amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 2000 IU of vitamin E daily, 10 mg of donepezil daily, or placebo for three years. The primary outcome was clinically possible or probable Alzheimer's disease; secondary outcomes were cognition and function. A total of 769 subjects were enrolled, and possible or probable Alzheimer's disease developed in 212. The overall rate of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease was 16 percent per year. As compared with the placebo group, there were no significant differences in the probability of progression to Alzheimer's disease in the vitamin E group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.41; P=0.91) or the donepezil group (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.57 to 1.13; P=0.42) during the three years of treatment. Prespecified analyses of the treatment effects at 6-month intervals showed that as compared with the placebo group, the donepezil group had a reduced likelihood of progression to Alzheimer's disease during the first 12 months of the study (P=0.04), a finding supported by the secondary outcome measures. Among carriers of one or more apolipoprotein E epsilon4 alleles, the benefit of donepezil was evident throughout the three-year follow-up. There were no significant differences in the rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease between the vitamin E and placebo groups at any point, either among all patients or among apolipoprotein E epsilon4 carriers. Vitamin E had no benefit in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Although donepezil therapy was associated with a lower rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease during the first 12 months of treatment, the rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease after three years was not lower among patients treated with donepezil than among those given placebo. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Effectiveness of collaborative care for older adults with Alzheimer disease in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

            Most older adults with dementia will be cared for by primary care physicians, but the primary care practice environment presents important challenges to providing quality care. To test the effectiveness of a collaborative care model to improve the quality of care for patients with Alzheimer disease. Controlled clinical trial of 153 older adults with Alzheimer disease and their caregivers who were randomized by physician to receive collaborative care management (n = 84) or augmented usual care (n = 69) at primary care practices within 2 US university-affiliated health care systems from January 2002 through August 2004. Eligible patients (identified via screening or medical record) met diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease and had a self-identified caregiver. Intervention patients received 1 year of care management by an interdisciplinary team led by an advanced practice nurse working with the patient's family caregiver and integrated within primary care. The team used standard protocols to initiate treatment and identify, monitor, and treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, stressing nonpharmacological management. Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) administered at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Secondary outcomes included the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), cognition, activities of daily living, resource use, and caregiver's depression severity. Initiated by caregivers' reports, 89% of intervention patients triggered at least 1 protocol for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia with a mean of 4 per patient from a total of 8 possible protocols. Intervention patients were more likely to receive cholinesterase inhibitors (79.8% vs 55.1%; P = .002) and antidepressants (45.2% vs 27.5%; P = .03). Intervention patients had significantly fewer behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia as measured by the total NPI score at 12 months (mean difference, -5.6; P = .01) and at 18 months (mean difference, -5.4; P = .01). Intervention caregivers also reported significant improvements in distress as measured by the caregiver NPI at 12 months; at 18 months, caregivers showed improvement in depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. No group differences were found on the CSDD, cognition, activities of daily living, or on rates of hospitalization, nursing home placement, or death. Collaborative care for the treatment of Alzheimer disease resulted in significant improvement in the quality of care and in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia among primary care patients and their caregivers. These improvements were achieved without significantly increasing the use of antipsychotics or sedative-hypnotics. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00246896.
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              Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline.

              Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an important role in neural function. Decreases in plasma DHA are associated with cognitive decline in healthy elderly adults and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Higher DHA intake is inversely correlated with relative risk of Alzheimer's disease. The potential benefits of DHA supplementation in age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) have not been fully examined. Determine effects of DHA administration on improving cognitive functions in healthy older adults with ARCD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study was conducted at 19 U.S. clinical sites. A total of 485 healthy subjects, aged ≥55 with Mini-Mental State Examination >26 and a Logical Memory (Wechsler Memory Scale III) baseline score ≥1 standard deviation below younger adults, were randomly assigned to 900 mg/d of DHA orally or matching placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the CANTAB Paired Associate Learning (PAL), a visuospatial learning and episodic memory test. Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated significantly fewer PAL six pattern errors with DHA versus placebo at 24 weeks (difference score, -1.63 ± 0.76 [-3.1, -0.14, 95% CI], P = .03). DHA supplementation was also associated with improved immediate and delayed Verbal Recognition Memory scores (P < .02), but not working memory or executive function tests. Plasma DHA levels doubled and correlated with improved PAL scores (P < .02) in the DHA group. DHA was well tolerated with no reported treatment-related serious adverse events. Twenty-four week supplementation with 900 mg/d DHA improved learning and memory function in ARCD and is a beneficial supplement that supports cognitive health with aging. Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT0027813. Copyright © 2010 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JAMA
                JAMA
                American Medical Association (AMA)
                0098-7484
                February 25 2020
                February 25 2020
                : 323
                : 8
                : 764
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Kaiser Permanente Evidence-based Practice Center, Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente, Portland, Oregon
                [2 ]HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota
                Article
                10.1001/jama.2019.22258
                32096857
                dffd815d-4fdb-4458-9e27-2b552a356bf0
                © 2020
                History

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