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      New structure–activity relationships of chalcone inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein: polyspecificity toward inhibition and critical substitutions against cytotoxicity

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          Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) plays a major role in cancer cell multidrug resistance, which contributes to low eifficacy of chemotherapy. Chalcones were recently found to be potent and specific inhibitors, but unfortunately display a significant cytotoxicity. A cellular screening against ABCG2-mediated mitoxantrone efflux was performed here by flow cytometry on 54 chalcone derivatives from three different series with a wide panel of substituents. The identified leads, with submicromolar IC 50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values, showed that the previously identified 2′-OH-4′,6′-dimethoxyphenyl, as A-ring, could be efficiently replaced by a 2′-naphthyl group, or a 3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl with lower affinity. Such a structural variability indicates 3polyspecificity of the multidrug transporter for inhibitors. At least two methoxyl groups were necessary on B-ring for optimal inhibition, but substitution at positions 3, 4, and 5 induced cytotoxicity. The presence of a large O-benzyl substituent at position 4 and a 2′-naphthyl as A-ring markedly decreased the cytotoxicity, giving a high therapeutic ratio, which constitutes a critical requirement for future in-vivo assays in animal models.

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          A multidrug resistance transporter from human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

          MCF-7/AdrVp is a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer subline that displays an ATP-dependent reduction in the intracellular accumulation of anthracycline anticancer drugs in the absence of overexpression of known multidrug resistance transporters such as P glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance protein. RNA fingerprinting led to the identification of a 2.4-kb mRNA that is overexpressed in MCF-7/AdrVp cells relative to parental MCF-7 cells. The mRNA encodes a 655-aa [corrected] member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transporters that we term breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Enforced expression of the full-length BCRP cDNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells confers resistance to mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, and daunorubicin, reduces daunorubicin accumulation and retention, and causes an ATP-dependent enhancement of the efflux of rhodamine 123 in the cloned transfected cells. BCRP is a xenobiotic transporter that appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of MCF-7/AdrVp human breast cancer cells.
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            Overexpression of a transporter gene in a multidrug-resistant human lung cancer cell line.

            The doxorubicin-selected lung cancer cell line H69AR is resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. However, like most tumor samples from individuals with this disease, it does not overexpress P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transport protein that is dependent on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is associated with multidrug resistance. Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones corresponding to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) overexpressed in H69AR cells were isolated. One cDNA hybridized to an mRNA of 7.8 to 8.2 kilobases that was 100- to 200-fold more expressed in H69AR cells relative to drug-sensitive parental H69 cells. Overexpression was associated with amplification of the cognate gene located on chromosome 16 at band p13.1. Reversion to drug sensitivity was associated with loss of gene amplification and a marked decrease in mRNA expression. The mRNA encodes a member of the ATP-binding cassette transmembrane transporter superfamily.
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              The biochemistry of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                30 September 2013
                : 7
                : 1043-1052
                [1 ]Equipe Labellisée Ligue 2013, BMSSI UMR 5086 CNRS/Université Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Lyon, France
                [2 ]Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PPGFAR, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
                [4 ]Equipe BISI, BMSSI UMR 5086 CNRS/Université Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Lyon, France
                [5 ]Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
                Author notes

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Correspondence: Attilio Di Pietro, Equipe Labellisée Ligue 2013, BMSSI UMR 5086 CNRS/Université Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, 7 Passage du Vercors, 69367 Lyon cedex 07, France, Tel +33 4 7272 2629, Fax +33 4 7272 2604, Email a.dipietro@ 123456ibcp.fr
                © 2013 Rangel et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Ltd, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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