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      Peripherally inserted central catheter thrombosis incidence and risk factors in cancer patients: a double-center prospective investigation

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          Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are widely used in chemotherapy, but the reported PICC thrombosis incidence varies greatly, and risks of PICC thrombosis are not well defined. This study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of PICC-related upper extremity vein thrombosis in cancer patients.


          This was a prospective study conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals from May 2010 to February 2013. Cancer patients who were subject to PICC placement were enrolled and checked by Doppler ultrasound weekly for at least 1 month. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied for identification of risk factors.


          Three hundred and eleven cancer patients were enrolled in the study. One hundred and sixty (51.4%) developed PICC thrombosis, of which 87 (54.4%) cases were symptomatic. The mean time interval from PICC insertion to thrombosis onset was 11.04±5.538 days. The univariable logistic regression analysis showed that complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.686, P=0.032), less activity (OR 1.476, P=0.006), obesity (OR 3.148, P=0.000), and chemotherapy history (OR 3.405, P=0.030) were associated with PICC thrombosis. Multivariate analysis showed that less activity (OR 9.583, P=0.000) and obesity (OR 3.466, P=0.014) were significantly associated with PICC thrombosis.


          The incidence of PICC thrombosis is relatively high, and nearly half are asymptomatic. Less activity and obesity are risk factors of PICC-related thrombosis.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Complication rates among cancer patients with peripherally inserted central catheters.

          Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently used to deliver outpatient courses of intravenous therapy. However, the rates and risks of complication for this device have not been well-studied. Our objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of PICC-related complications with a 1-year prospective observational study. All PICCs inserted in adult and pediatric patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) were followed prospectively. The device insertion team, inpatient nurses, and various home-care companies and outside institutions collected longitudinal data. Three hundred fifty-one PICCs were inserted during the study period and followed for a total of 10,562 catheter-days (median placement, 15 days; range, 1 to 487 days). Two hundred five PICCs (58%) were managed by home-care companies and outside institutions, and 146 PICCs (42%) were managed exclusively at MSKCC. For these 205 PICCs, 131 nurses from 74 home-care companies and institutions were contacted for follow-up clinical information. In all, 115 (32.8%) of 351 PICCs were removed as a result of a complication, for a rate of 10.9 per 1,000 catheter-days. Patients with hematologic malignancy or bone marrow transplant were more likely to develop a complication, whereas those with metastatic disease were less likely. Complications occur frequently among cancer patients with PICCs, and long-term follow-up is onerous. Despite a high complication rate, the ease of insertion and removal argues for continued PICC use in the cancer population.
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            Vascular access in oncology patients.

            Adequate vascular access is of paramount importance in oncology patients. It is important in the initial phase of surgical treatment or chemotherapy, as well as in the chronic management of advanced cancer and in the palliative care setting. We present an overview of the available vascular access devices and of the most relevant issues regarding insertion and management of vascular access. Particular emphasis is given to the use of ultrasound guidance as the preferred technique of insertion, which has dramatically decreased insertion-related complications. Vascular access management has considerably improved after the publication of effective guidelines for the appropriate nursing of the vascular device, which has reduced the risk of late complications, such as catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, many areas of clinical practice are still lacking an evidence-based background, such as the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device in each clinical situation, as well as prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We suggest an approach to the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device for the oncology patient, based on the literature available to date.
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              Catheter-related upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in cancer patients: a prospective study based on Doppler US.

              This prospective study extending for more than 3 years had two objectives: (a) to use Doppler ultrasonography (US) to estimate the incidence of asymptomatic catheter-related upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a large population and (b) to study the effect of the catheter position as an individual risk factor for catheter-related DVT. Between October 1995 and June 1998, a total of 145 patients who had oropharyngeal tract cancer and who were fitted with the same totally implantable central venous catheters (CVCs) were included in the study. Follow-up included (a) estimation of the position of each catheter tip on a chest radiograph obtained immediately after surgery and (b) regular monthly Doppler US screening for catheter-related DVT. Seventeen patients developed catheter-related DVT; 13 of them were asymptomatic. The mean interval between CVC implantation and detection of thrombosis was 42.2 days. Correct positioning of the distal catheter tip was associated with a significantly lower rate of catheter-related DVT. Only five of 87 patients with a correctly positioned distal catheter tip (ie, either in the superior vena cava or at the junction between the right atrium and the superior vena cava) developed thrombosis, compared with 12 of 26 patients with a misplaced catheter (P <.001). The side on which the CVC was implanted did not influence the catheter-related DVT rate. The rate of asymptomatic catheter-related DVT is high and could be lowered with correct initial CVC positioning.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                29 January 2015
                : 11
                : 153-160
                [1 ]Oncology Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Breast Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Nursing Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yufang Gao, No16 Jiangsu Road, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shinan District, Qingdao 266001, People’s Republic of China, Email gaoyufang_qd@ 123456163.com
                © 2015 Liu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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