D-Xylose was converted via 1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-xylofuranose (4) into 3-O-benzoyl-5-S-benzoyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-xylofuranose which, after methanolysis, acetylation and subsequent acetolysis afforded 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-5-thio-alpha-D-xylopyranose (14) in an overall yield of 36%. Reaction of 4 with thionyl chloride gave a mixture of the diastereomeric cyclic sulfites, the structures of which were established by X-ray crystallography. Their oxidation with sodium periodate afforded the corresponding cyclic sulfate 23. Treatment of 23 with potassium thioacetate gave the potassium salt of 5-S-acetyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-xylofuranose 3-O-sulfonic acid (26) which, after methanolysis, acetylation and subsequent acetolysis afforded 14 in an overall yield of 56%. Treatment of 4 with sulfuryl chloride gave a mixture containing 5-chloro-3-O-chlorosulfonyl-5-deoxy-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D- xylofuranose, 3,7,9,11-tetraoxa-4-thia-10-dimethyl-tricyclo[6,3,0, 0(2,6)]undecane S-dioxide and 23 in a 2:3:7 ratio. Tetraacetate 14 was converted into the alpha-1-bromide 18 as well as into the alpha-1-O-trichloroacetimidate 17. These three compounds were used as donors for the glycosylation with 4-cyanothiophenol, affording the 4-cyanophenyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1,5-dithio-alpha- (29) and beta-D-xylopyranoside (30) in different ratios, depending on the reaction conditions. When donor 18 was used in the presence of potassium carbonate, besides 29 and 30 two aryl C-glycosylated-thioglycosides, i.e. 4-cyano-2-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-5-thio-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)phenyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1,5-dithio-alpha- and beta-D-xylopyranoside (32 and 33) as well as 4-cyano-2-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-5-thio-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)phenyl disulfide 34 could be isolated as byproducts. Deacetylation of 30 with sodium methoxide in methanol afforded, besides 4-cyano-phenyl 1,5-dithio-beta-D-xylopyranoside (1), the corresponding 4-[(methoxy)(imino)methyl]phenyl glycoside 2. The 4-cyano group of 1 was converted into the 4-aminothiocarbonyl, the 4-(methyl-thio)(imino)methyl, the 4-amidino and the 4-(imino)(hydrazino)methyl group. All of these glycosides showed a significant antithrombotic activity on rats.