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      Decellularized human ovarian scaffold based on a sodium lauryl ester sulfate (SLES)-treated protocol, as a natural three-dimensional scaffold for construction of bioengineered ovaries

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          Abstract

          Background

          The increasing number of patients with ovarian insufficiency due to autoimmune disorders, genetic predisposition, or iatrogenic effects of treatment such as cancer therapies necessitates an urgent measure to find a safe and transplantable alternative ovary. A bioengineered ovary is one of the strategies on which the researchers have recently been working. An engineered ovary should be able to mimic the natural ovary aspects. Recent studies suggest that the decellularized organ-specific extracellular matrix-based scaffolds can serve as a native niche to bioengineering artificial organs. Therefore, we established a human decellularized ovarian scaffold based on a sodium lauryl ester sulfate (SLES)-treated process, as an optimized protocol.

          Methods

          The human ovary samples were decellularized with 1% SLES for 48 h followed by DNase I in PBS for 24 h, and then thoroughly rinsed in PBS to remove the cell remnants and chemical reagents. Efficient cell removal was confirmed by DNA content analysis, hematoxylin and eosin, and Hoechst staining. Preservation assessment of the extracellular matrix structures was performed by immunohistochemistry, histological staining, and scanning electron microscopy. An MTT test was done to assess the in vitro scaffold’s cytocompatibility, and finally in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the biocompatibility, bioactivity, and secretion functions of the ovarian grafts made of primary ovarian cells (POCs) on the decellularized scaffolds.

          Results

          Evidence provided by SEM, histochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the ovarian extracellular matrix was preserved after decellularization. Moreover, MTT test indicated the suitable cytocompatibility of the scaffolds. The in vivo assessment showed that the POCs kept their viability and bioactivity, and reconstructed the primordial or primary follicle-like structures within the scaffolds after transplantation. Immunostaining characterized somatic cells that were capable of expressing steroid hormone receptors; also, as a marker of granulosa cell, inhibin-α immunostaining demonstrated these cells within the grafts. Additionally, hormone assessment showed that serum estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in ovariectomized rats with ovarian cells-seeded grafts than those with or without decellularized scaffold grafts.

          Conclusions

          A human ovary-specific scaffold based on a SLES-decellularized protocol as a biomimicry of the natural ovarian niche can be an ideal scaffold used to reconstruct the ovary.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13287-018-0971-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 54

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          The road to maturation: somatic cell interaction and self-organization of the mammalian oocyte.

          Mammalian oocytes go through a long and complex developmental process while acquiring the competencies that are required for fertilization and embryogenesis. Recent advances in molecular genetics and quantitative live imaging reveal new insights into the molecular basis of the communication between the oocyte and ovarian somatic cells as well as the dynamic cytoskeleton-based events that drive each step along the pathway to maturity. Whereas self-organization of microtubules and motor proteins direct meiotic spindle assembly for achieving genome reduction, actin filaments are instrumental for spindle positioning and the establishment of oocyte polarity needed for extrusion of polar bodies. Meiotic chromatin provides key instructive signals while being 'chauffeured' by both cytoskeletal systems.
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            Oocyte generation in adult mammalian ovaries by putative germ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood.

            It has been suggested that germline stem cells maintain oogenesis in postnatal mouse ovaries. Here we show that adult mouse ovaries rapidly generate hundreds of oocytes, despite a small premeiotic germ cell pool. In considering the possibility of an extragonadal source of germ cells, we show expression of germline markers in bone marrow (BM). Further, BM transplantation restores oocyte production in wild-type mice sterilized by chemotherapy, as well as in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene-deficient mice, which are otherwise incapable of making oocytes. Donor-derived oocytes are also observed in female mice following peripheral blood transplantation. Although the fertilizability and developmental competency of the BM and peripheral blood-derived oocytes remain to be established, their morphology, enclosure within follicles, and expression of germ-cell- and oocyte-specific markers collectively support that these cells are bona fide oocytes. These results identify BM as a potential source of germ cells that could sustain oocyte production in adulthood.
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              A hydrogel derived from decellularized dermal extracellular matrix.

              The ECM of mammalian tissues has been used as a scaffold to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of numerous tissues. Such scaffolds are prepared in many forms including sheets, powders, and hydrogels. ECM hydrogels provide advantages such as injectability, the ability to fill an irregularly shaped space, and the inherent bioactivity of native matrix. However, material properties of ECM hydrogels and the effect of these properties upon cell behavior are neither well understood nor controlled. The objective of this study was to prepare and determine the structure, mechanics, and the cell response in vitro and in vivo of ECM hydrogels prepared from decellularized porcine dermis and urinary bladder tissues. Dermal ECM hydrogels were characterized by a more dense fiber architecture and greater mechanical integrity than urinary bladder ECM hydrogels, and showed a dose dependent increase in mechanical properties with ECM concentration. In vitro, dermal ECM hydrogels supported greater C2C12 myoblast fusion, and less fibroblast infiltration and less fibroblast mediated hydrogel contraction than urinary bladder ECM hydrogels. Both hydrogels were rapidly infiltrated by host cells, primarily macrophages, when implanted in a rat abdominal wall defect. Both ECM hydrogels degraded by 35 days in vivo, but UBM hydrogels degraded more quickly, and with greater amounts of myogenesis than dermal ECM. These results show that ECM hydrogel properties can be varied and partially controlled by the scaffold tissue source, and that these properties can markedly affect cell behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                stud4432871563@sums.ac.ir
                talaeit@sums.ac.ir
                Elyas.kargar@gmail.com
                razban_vahid@yahoo.com
                (+98 71) 32304372 , vojdaniz@sums.ac.ir
                Journal
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1757-6512
                26 September 2018
                26 September 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, GRID grid.412571.4, Tissue Engineering Lab, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, GRID grid.412571.4, Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, GRID grid.412571.4, Molecular Medicine Department, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technology, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, GRID grid.412571.4, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0745 1259, GRID grid.412573.6, Department of Anatomical Sciences, , School of Medicine, Imam Hussain Square, ; Zand St, Shiraz, Fars 7134845794 Iran
                Article
                971
                10.1186/s13287-018-0971-5
                6158855
                30257706
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004320, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences;
                Award ID: 94-01-01-10722
                Award Recipient :
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                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2018

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