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      Evaluation of contrast nephropathy in percutaneous treatment of chronic total occlusions

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          Abstract

          Background

          Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Chronic total occlusions (CTO) are frequently observed among patients undergoing coronary angiography.

          Methods

          A total of 128 CTO patients were included. Mehran score, lesion characteristics, interventional procedure, serological specimens and devices were recorded. The first group was administered with 1 ml · kg −1 · h −1 saline (0.9% NaCl) infusion that started 12 h before the procedure and continued 12 h post procedure as recommended by the guidelines. The second group was administered with saline infusion of 12 ml · kg −1 · h −1 only during CTO-PCI procedure, which is called as intensive infusion.

          Results

          CIN development was similar in two groups (four patients in standard hydration group and five patients in intensive hydration group). The amount of saline was significantly higher in the standard group (1,767 ± 192.2 vs. 1,043.6 ± 375; p < 0.001). Patients with higher creatinine levels prior to PCI had a higher rate of CIN development after procedure. Interestingly, age, left ventricular ejection fraction, and diabetes mellitus independently predicted CIN.

          Conclusion

          Intensive hydration administration appears to be an effective and cost-effective method in CTO-PCI patients, especially in patients without left ventricular function failure.

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          Most cited references33

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          A simple risk score for prediction of contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention: development and initial validation.

          We sought to develop a simple risk score of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although several risk factors for CIN have been identified, the cumulative risk rendered by their combination is unknown. A total of 8,357 patients were randomly assigned to a development and a validation dataset. The baseline clinical and procedural characteristics of the 5,571 patients in the development dataset were considered as candidate univariate predictors of CIN (increase >or=25% and/or >or=0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 h after PCI vs. baseline). Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify independent predictors of CIN with a p value 75 years, anemia, and volume of contrast) were assigned a weighted integer; the sum of the integers was a total risk score for each patient. The overall occurrence of CIN in the development set was 13.1% (range 7.5% to 57.3% for a low [ or=16] risk score, respectively); the rate of CIN increased exponentially with increasing risk score (Cochran Armitage chi-square, p < 0.0001). In the 2,786 patients of the validation dataset, the model demonstrated good discriminative power (c statistic = 0.67); the increasing risk score was again strongly associated with CIN (range 8.4% to 55.9% for a low and high risk score, respectively). The risk of CIN after PCI can be simply assessed using readily available information. This risk score can be used for both clinical and investigational purposes.
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            Incidence and prognostic importance of acute renal failure after percutaneous coronary intervention.

            In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the modern era, the incidence and prognostic implications of acute renal failure (ARF) are unknown. With a retrospective analysis of the Mayo Clinic PCI registry, we determined the incidence of, risk factors for, and prognostic implications of ARF (defined as an increase in serum creatinine [Cr] >0.5 mg/dL from baseline) after PCI. Of 7586 patients, 254 (3.3%) experienced ARF. Among patients with baseline Cr 2.0, all had a significant risk of ARF. In multivariate analysis, ARF was associated with baseline serum Cr, acute myocardial infarction, shock, and volume of contrast medium administered. Twenty-two percent of patients with ARF died during the index hospitalization compared with only 1.4% of patients without ARF (P 2.0 are at high risk for ARF. ARF was highly correlated with death during the index hospitalization and after dismissal.
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              Acute renal failure after coronary intervention: incidence, risk factors, and relationship to mortality.

              This study set out to define the incidence, predictors, and mortality related to acute renal failure (ARF) and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARFD) after coronary intervention. Derivation-validation set methods were used in 1,826 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention with evaluation of baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl), diabetic status, contrast exposure, postprocedure creatinine, ARF, ARFD, in-hospital mortality, and long-term survival (derivation set). Multiple logistic regression was used to derive the prior probability of ARFD in a second set of 1,869 consecutive patients (validation set). The incidence of ARF and ARFD was 144.6/1,000 and 7.7/1,000 cases respectively. The cutoff dose of contrast below which there was no ARFD was 100 mL. No patient with a CrCl > 47 mL/min developed ARFD. These thresholds were confirmed in the validation set. Multivariate analysis found CrCl [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 0.89, P <0.00001], diabetes (OR = 5.47, 95% CI 1.40 to 21.32, P = 0.01), and contrast dose (OR = 1.008, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.013, P = 0.01) to be independent predictors of ARFD. Patients in the validation set who underwent dialysis had a predicted prior probability of ARFD of between 0.07 and 0.73. The in-hospital mortality for those who developed ARFD was 35.7% and the 2-year survival was 18.8%. The occurrence of ARFD after coronary intervention is rare (<1%) but is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. Individual patient risk can be estimated from calculated CrCl, diabetic status, and expected contrast dose prior to a proposed coronary intervention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Interv Med Appl Sci
                Interv Med Appl Sci
                imas
                IMAS
                Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2061-1617
                2061-5094
                02 July 2019
                June 2019
                : 11
                : 2
                : 95-100
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Adiyaman University , Adiyaman, Turkey
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Inönü University , Malatya, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Malatya Training and Research Hospital , Malatya, Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Lütfü Aşkın, MD; Department of Cardiology, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman 02000, Turkey; Phone: +90 531 520 3486; Fax: +90 4161015; E-mail: lutfuaskin23@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1556/1646.11.2019.15
                7044539
                e32c6a5a-8d2f-4341-8e05-dddf22427600
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funding sources: The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to publish the results.
                Categories
                Original Paper

                chronic total occlusions,contrast-induced nephropathy,hydration,percutaneous coronary intervention,saline infusion

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