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      Validation of Chest Computed Tomography Artificial Intelligence to Determine the Requirement for Mechanical Ventilation and Risk of Mortality in Hospitalized Coronavirus Disease-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Center In Mexico City

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          ABSTRACT Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology has improved diagnostic performance and shortened reading times of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients’ studies. Objectives: The objectives pf the study were to analyze the performance of a chest computed tomography (CT) AI quantitative algorithm for determining the risk of mortality/mechanical ventilation (MV) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and explore a prognostic multivariate model in a tertiary-care center in Mexico City. Methods: Chest CT images of 166 COVID-19 patients hospitalized from April 1 to 20, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed using AI algorithm software. Data were collected from their medical records. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of the relevant CT variables using the area under the ROC curve (area under the curve [AUC]). Optimal thresholds were obtained using the Youden index. We proposed a predictive logistic model for each outcome based on CT AI measures and predetermined laboratory and clinical characteristics. Results: The highest diagnostic yield of the assessed CT variables for mortality was the percentage of total opacity (threshold >51%; AUC = 0.88, sensitivity = 74%, and specificity = 91%). The AUC of the CT severity score (threshold > 12.5) was 0.88 for MV (sensitivity = 65% and specificity = 92%). The proposed prognostic models include the percentage of opacity and lactate dehydrogenase level for mortality and troponin I and CT severity score for MV requirement. Conclusion: The AI-calculated CT severity score and total opacity percentage showed good diagnostic accuracy for mortality and met MV criteria. The proposed prognostic models using biochemical variables and imaging data measured by AI on chest CT showed good risk classification in our population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

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          Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area

          There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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            Sensitivity of Chest CT for COVID-19: Comparison to RT-PCR

            Summary In a series of 51 patients with chest CT and RT-PCR assay performed within 3 days, the sensitivity of CT for COVID-19 infection was 98% compared to RT-PCR sensitivity of 71% (p<.001). Introduction In December 2019, an outbreak of unexplained pneumonia in Wuhan [1] was caused by a new coronavirus infection named COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019). Noncontrast chest CT may be considered for early diagnosis of viral disease, although viral nucleic acid detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the standard of reference. Chung et al. reported that chest CT may be negative for viral pneumonia of COVID-19 [2] at initial presentation (3/21 patients). Recently, Xie reported 5/167 (3%) patients who had negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 at initial presentation despite chest CT findings typical of viral pneumonia [3]. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of chest CT and viral nucleic acid assay at initial patient presentation. Materials and Methods The retrospective analysis was approved by institutional review board and patient consent was waived. Patients at Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) Enze Hospital were evaluated from January 19, 2020 to February 4, 2020. During this period, chest CT and RT-PCR (Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tech Co, Ltd, Shanghai, China) was performed for consecutive patients who presented with a history of 1) travel or residential history in Wuhan or local endemic areas or contact with individuals with individuals with fever or respiratory symptoms from these areas within 14 days and 2) had fever or acute respiratory symptoms of unknown cause. In the case of an initial negative RT-PCR test, repeat testing was performed at intervals of 1 day or more. Of these patients, we included all patients who had both noncontrast chest CT scan (slice thickness, 5mm) and RT-PCR testing within an interval of 3 days or less and who had an eventual confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR testing (Figure 1). Typical and atypical chest CT findings were recorded according to CT features previously described for COVD-19 (4,5). The detection rate of COVID-19 infection based on the initial chest CT and RT-PCR was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using McNemar Chi-squared test with significance at the p <.05 level. Figure 1: Flowchart for patient inclusion. Results 51 patients (29 men and 22 women) were included with median age of 45 (interquartile range, 39- 55) years. All patients had throat swab (45 patients) or sputum samples (6 patients) followed by one or more RT-PCR assays. The average time from initial disease onset to CT was 3 +/- 3 days; the average time from initial disease onset to RT-PCR testing was 3 +/- 3 days. 36/51 patients had initial positive RT-PCR for COVID-19. 12/51 patients had COVID-19 confirmed by two RT-PCR nucleic acid tests (1 to 2 days), 2 patients by three tests (2-5 days) and 1 patient by four tests (7 days) after initial onset. 50/51 (98%) patients had evidence of abnormal CT compatible with viral pneumonia at baseline while one patient had a normal CT. Of 50 patients with abnormal CT, 36 (72%) had typical CT manifestations (e.g. peripheral, subpleural ground glass opacities, often in the lower lobes (Figure 2) and 14 (28%) had atypical CT manifestations (Figure 3) [2]. In this patient sample, difference in detection rate for initial CT (50/51 [98%, 95% CI 90-100%]) patients was greater than first RT-PCR (36/51 [71%, 95%CI 56-83%]) patients (p<.001). Figure 2a: Examples of typical chest CT findings compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 74 years old with fever and cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows bilateral subpleural ground glass opacities (GGO). B, female, 55 years old, with fever and cough for 7 days. Axial chest CT shows extensive bilateral ground glass opacities and consolidation; C, male, 43 years old, presenting with fever and cough for 1 week. Axial chest CT shows small bilateral areas of peripheral GGO with minimal consolidation; D, female, 43 years old presenting with fever with cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows a right lung region of peripheral consolidation. Figure 2b: Examples of typical chest CT findings compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 74 years old with fever and cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows bilateral subpleural ground glass opacities (GGO). B, female, 55 years old, with fever and cough for 7 days. Axial chest CT shows extensive bilateral ground glass opacities and consolidation; C, male, 43 years old, presenting with fever and cough for 1 week. Axial chest CT shows small bilateral areas of peripheral GGO with minimal consolidation; D, female, 43 years old presenting with fever with cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows a right lung region of peripheral consolidation. Figure 2c: Examples of typical chest CT findings compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 74 years old with fever and cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows bilateral subpleural ground glass opacities (GGO). B, female, 55 years old, with fever and cough for 7 days. Axial chest CT shows extensive bilateral ground glass opacities and consolidation; C, male, 43 years old, presenting with fever and cough for 1 week. Axial chest CT shows small bilateral areas of peripheral GGO with minimal consolidation; D, female, 43 years old presenting with fever with cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows a right lung region of peripheral consolidation. Figure 2d: Examples of typical chest CT findings compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 74 years old with fever and cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows bilateral subpleural ground glass opacities (GGO). B, female, 55 years old, with fever and cough for 7 days. Axial chest CT shows extensive bilateral ground glass opacities and consolidation; C, male, 43 years old, presenting with fever and cough for 1 week. Axial chest CT shows small bilateral areas of peripheral GGO with minimal consolidation; D, female, 43 years old presenting with fever with cough for 5 days. Axial chest CT shows a right lung region of peripheral consolidation. Figure 3a: Examples of chest CT findings less commonly reported in COVID-19 infection (atypical) in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 36 years old with cough for 3 days. Axial chest CT shows a small focal and central ground glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper lobe; B, female, 40 years old. Axial chest CT shows small peripheral linear opacities bilaterally. C, male, 38 years old. Axial chest CT shows a GGO in the central left lower lobe; D, male, 31 years old with fever for 1 day. Axial chest CT shows a linear opacity in the left lower lateral mid lung. Figure 3b: Examples of chest CT findings less commonly reported in COVID-19 infection (atypical) in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 36 years old with cough for 3 days. Axial chest CT shows a small focal and central ground glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper lobe; B, female, 40 years old. Axial chest CT shows small peripheral linear opacities bilaterally. C, male, 38 years old. Axial chest CT shows a GGO in the central left lower lobe; D, male, 31 years old with fever for 1 day. Axial chest CT shows a linear opacity in the left lower lateral mid lung. Figure 3c: Examples of chest CT findings less commonly reported in COVID-19 infection (atypical) in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 36 years old with cough for 3 days. Axial chest CT shows a small focal and central ground glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper lobe; B, female, 40 years old. Axial chest CT shows small peripheral linear opacities bilaterally. C, male, 38 years old. Axial chest CT shows a GGO in the central left lower lobe; D, male, 31 years old with fever for 1 day. Axial chest CT shows a linear opacity in the left lower lateral mid lung. Figure 3d: Examples of chest CT findings less commonly reported in COVID-19 infection (atypical) in patients with epidemiological and clinical presentation suspicious for COVID-19 infection. A, male, 36 years old with cough for 3 days. Axial chest CT shows a small focal and central ground glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper lobe; B, female, 40 years old. Axial chest CT shows small peripheral linear opacities bilaterally. C, male, 38 years old. Axial chest CT shows a GGO in the central left lower lobe; D, male, 31 years old with fever for 1 day. Axial chest CT shows a linear opacity in the left lower lateral mid lung. Discussion In our series, the sensitivity of chest CT was greater than that of RT-PCR (98% vs 71%, respectively, p<.001). The reasons for the low efficiency of viral nucleic acid detection may include: 1) immature development of nucleic acid detection technology; 2) variation in detection rate from different manufacturers; 3) low patient viral load; or 4) improper clinical sampling. The reasons for the relatively lower RT-PCR detection rate in our sample compared to a prior report are unknown (3). Our results support the use of chest CT for screening for COVD-19 for patients with clinical and epidemiologic features compatible with COVID-19 infection particularly when RT-PCR testing is negative.
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              Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure

              Background: Tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are being used to “rule out” infection among high-risk persons, such as exposed inpatients and health care workers. It is critical to understand how the predictive value of the test varies with time from exposure and symptom onset to avoid being falsely reassured by negative test results. Objective: To estimate the false-negative rate by day since infection. Design: Literature review and pooled analysis. Setting: 7 previously published studies providing data on RT-PCR performance by time since symptom onset or SARS-CoV-2 exposure using samples from the upper respiratory tract (n = 1330). Patients: A mix of inpatients and outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Measurements: A Bayesian hierarchical model was fitted to estimate the false-negative rate by day since exposure and symptom onset. Results: Over the 4 days of infection before the typical time of symptom onset (day 5), the probability of a false-negative result in an infected person decreases from 100% (95% CI, 100% to 100%) on day 1 to 67% (CI, 27% to 94%) on day 4. On the day of symptom onset, the median false-negative rate was 38% (CI, 18% to 65%). This decreased to 20% (CI, 12% to 30%) on day 8 (3 days after symptom onset) then began to increase again, from 21% (CI, 13% to 31%) on day 9 to 66% (CI, 54% to 77%) on day 21. Limitation: Imprecise estimates due to heterogeneity in the design of studies on which results were based. Conclusion: Care must be taken in interpreting RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection—particularly early in the course of infection—when using these results as a basis for removing precautions intended to prevent onward transmission. If clinical suspicion is high, infection should not be ruled out on the basis of RT-PCR alone, and the clinical and epidemiologic situation should be carefully considered. Primary Funding Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Health System, and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ric
                Revista de investigación clínica
                Rev. invest. clín.
                Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico )
                0034-8376
                2564-8896
                April 2021
                : 73
                : 2
                : 111-119
                Affiliations
                Mexico City orgnameCT Scanner Group orgdiv1Department of Radiology Mexico
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of Radiology Mexico
                Article
                S0034-83762021000200111 S0034-8376(21)07300200111
                10.24875/ric.20000451

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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