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      Atendimento pré-hospitalar à múltiplas vítimas com trauma simulado Translated title: Prehospital care to trauma victmis with multiple simulated

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVO: Analisar a qualidade do atendimento pré-hospitalar realizado pelas agências em Vitória-ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado nos arquivos da Liga Acadêmica de Cirurgia e Atendimento ao Trauma do Espírito Santo (Lacates) dos dados de 40 vítimas de um acidente simulado entre um ônibus e dois automóveis. Os pacientes foram assistidos por quatro equipes: Corpo de Bombeiro Militar do Espírito Santo, Samu 192, Guarda Municipal e Defesa Civil. A atuação dessas equipes foi avaliada pela Lacates, através da análise do check-list com orientações pré-estabelecidas para cada vítima. RESULTADO: O Corpo de Bombeiros Militar do Espírito Santo (CBMES), que desencarcerou as vítimas, delimitou as zonas de perigo e realizou a triagem pelo método START atuou corretamente em 92,5% dos casos. O Samu 192 que atendeu as vítimas pelo método mnemônico (ABCDE) no posto médico avançado agiu corretamente em 92,5% dos casos, no quesito Via Aérea; 97,5%, no Respiração; 92,5%, no Circulação; 90%, no Avaliação Neurológica; e 50%, no Exposição e Controle do Ambiente. A análise conjunta do ABCDE mostrou que o atendimento foi correto em 42,5% dos casos. O transporte dos pacientes foi realizado corretamente em 95% dos casos. A Guarda Municipal garantiu a perviedade das avenidas para transporte dos pacientes, e a Defesa Civil coordenou eficazmente o trabalho das equipes envolvidas no posto de comando. CONCLUSÃO: A triagem e o transporte foram executados satisfatoriamente, entretanto, maior atenção deve ser dada à exposição e proteção contra hipotermia das vítimas, já que esse item comprometeu o tratamento.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of prehospital care agencies conducted in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in the archives of the League of Academic Surgery and Trauma Care of Espírito Santo (Lacates) regarding 40 victims of a simulated crash between a bus and two cars. The patients were treated by four teams: Military Fire Department of Espírito Santo, Samu 192, County Guard and Civil Defense. The performance of these teams was evaluated by Lacates, through analysis of a check-list with pre-established guidelines for each victim. RESULT: The Fire Department of Espírito Santo (CBMES), which extricated victims, outlined the danger zones and carried out the screening by the method START, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases. The Samu 192 victims, which attended victims by the mnemonic method (ABCDE) in medical outposts, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases in the category Airway; 97.5% in breathing, 92.5% in circulation, 90% in Neurological Assessment, and 50% in the Exhibition and Environmental Control. The analysis showed that the ABCDE care was correct in 42.5% of cases. The transport of patients was performed correctly in 95% of cases. The County Guard secured the patency of the avenues for transportation of patients and Civil Defense successfully coordinated the work of teams involved in the command post. CONCLUSION: The triage and transport of victims have been performed satisfactorily. However, more attention should be given to exposure and hypothermia protection of victims, since this item compromised treatment.

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          Most cited references34

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          Exsanguination in trauma: A review of diagnostics and treatment options.

          Trauma patients with haemorrhagic shock who only transiently respond or do not respond to fluid therapy and/or the administration of blood products have exsanguinating injuries. Recognising shock due to (exsanguinating) haemorrhage in trauma is about constructing a synthesis of trauma mechanism, injuries, vital signs and the therapeutic response of the patient. The aim of prehospital care of bleeding trauma patients is to deliver the patient to a facility for definitive care within the shortest amount of time by rapid transport and minimise therapy to what is necessary to maintain adequate vital signs. Rapid decisions have to be made using regional trauma triage protocols that have incorporated patient condition, transport times and the level of care than can be performed by the prehospital care providers and the receiving hospitals. The treatment of bleeding patients is aimed at two major goals: stopping the bleeding and restoration of the blood volume. Fluid resuscitation should allow for preservation of vital functions without increasing the risk for further (re)bleeding. To prevent further deterioration and subsequent exsanguinations 'permissive hypotension' may be the goal to achieve. Within the hospital, a sound trauma team activation system, including the logistic procedure as well as activation criteria, is essential for a fast and adequate response. After determination of haemorrhagic shock, all efforts have to be directed to stop the bleeding in order to prevent exsanguinations. A simultaneous effort is made to restore blood volume and correct coagulation. Reversal of coagulopathy with pharmacotherapeutic interventions may be a promising concept to limit blood loss after trauma. Abdominal ultrasound has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for detection of haemoperitoneum. With the development of sliding-gantry based computer tomography diagnostic systems, rapid evaluation by CT-scanning of the trauma patient is possible during resuscitation. The concept of damage control surgery, the staged approach in treatment of severe trauma, has proven to be of vital importance in the treatment of exsanguinating trauma patients and is adopted worldwide. When performing 'blind' transfusion or 'damage control resuscitation', a predetermined fixed ratio of blood components may result in the administration of higher plasma and platelets doses and may improve outcome. The role of thromboelastography and thromboelastometry as point-of-care tests for coagulation in massive blood loss is emerging, providing information about actual clot formation and clot stability, shortly (10min) after the blood sample is taken. Thus, therapy guided by the test results will allow for administration of specific coagulation factors that will be depleted despite administration with fresh frozen plasma during massive transfusion of blood components.
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            Guidelines for prehospital fluid resuscitation in the injured patient.

            Although the need and benefit of prehospital interventions has been controversial for quite some time, an increasing amount of evidence has stirred both sides into more frequent debate. Proponents of the traditional "scoop-and-run" technique argue that this approach allows a more timely transfer to definitive care facilities and limits unnecessary (and potentially harmful) procedures. However, advocates of the "stay-and-play" method point to improvement in survival to reach the hospital and better neurologic outcomes after brain injury. Given the lack of consensus, the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma convened a Practice Management Guideline committee to answer the following questions regarding prehospital resuscitation: (1) should injured patients have vascular access attempted in the prehospital setting? (2) if so, what location is preferred for access? (3) if access is achieved, should intravenous fluids be administered? (4) if fluids are to be administered, which solution is preferred? and (5) if fluids are to be administered, what volume and rate should be infused?
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              Emergency medical services intervals and survival in trauma: assessment of the "golden hour" in a North American prospective cohort.

              The first hour after the onset of out-of-hospital traumatic injury is referred to as the "golden hour," yet the relationship between time and outcome remains unclear. We evaluate the association between emergency medical services (EMS) intervals and mortality among trauma patients with field-based physiologic abnormality. This was a secondary analysis of an out-of-hospital, prospective cohort registry of adult (aged > or =15 years) trauma patients transported by 146 EMS agencies to 51 Level I and II trauma hospitals in 10 sites across North America from December 1, 2005, through March 31, 2007. Inclusion criteria were systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mm Hg, respiratory rate less than 10 or greater than 29 breaths/min, Glasgow Coma Scale score less than or equal to 12, or advanced airway intervention. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. We evaluated EMS intervals (activation, response, on-scene, transport, and total time) with logistic regression and 2-step instrumental variable models, adjusted for field-based confounders. There were 3,656 trauma patients available for analysis, of whom 806 (22.0%) died. In multivariable analyses, there was no significant association between time and mortality for any EMS interval: activation (odds ratio [OR] 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 to 1.05), response (OR 1.00; 95% CI 9.97 to 1.04), on-scene (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01), transport (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.01), or total EMS time (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01). Subgroup and instrumental variable analyses did not qualitatively change these findings. In this North American sample, there was no association between EMS intervals and mortality among injured patients with physiologic abnormality in the field. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcbc
                Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
                Rev. Col. Bras. Cir.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0100-6991
                1809-4546
                June 2012
                : 39
                : 3
                : 230-237
                Affiliations
                [01] ES orgnamePronto-Socorro do Hospital da Polícia Militar do Espírito Santo BR
                [02] ES orgnamePronto-Socorro da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória
                [03] orgnameHospital da Polícia Militar do Espírito Santo orgdiv1Centro de Tratamento Intensivo
                [04] orgnameHospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Campinas
                [05] ES orgnameSanta Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória
                [06] orgnameLiga Acadêmica de Cirurgia e Atendimento ao Trauma do Espírito Santo
                Article
                S0100-69912012000300013 S0100-6991(12)03900313
                10.1590/S0100-69912012000300013
                e394b2fb-a92a-4086-9cfa-cb6ec837ac64

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 15 April 2011
                : 15 February 2011
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Categories
                Ensino

                Incidents with mass casualties,Wounds and injuries,Simulation,Gestão de qualidade,Serviços pré-hospitalares,Incidentes com feridos em massa,Ferimentos e lesões,Simulação,Quality management,Pre-hospital services

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