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      Arlequin (version 3.0): An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis

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          Arlequin ver 3.0 is a software package integrating several basic and advanced methods for population genetics data analysis, like the computation of standard genetic diversity indices, the estimation of allele and haplotype frequencies, tests of departure from linkage equilibrium, departure from selective neutrality and demographic equilibrium, estimation or parameters from past population expansions, and thorough analyses of population subdivision under the AMOVA framework. Arlequin 3 introduces a completely new graphical interface written in C++, a more robust semantic analysis of input files, and two new methods: a Bayesian estimation of gametic phase from multi-locus genotypes, and an estimation of the parameters of an instantaneous spatial expansion from DNA sequence polymorphism. Arlequin can handle several data types like DNA sequences, microsatellite data, or standard multi-locus genotypes. A Windows version of the software is freely available on

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          Most cited references 41

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          Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism.

           F Tajima (1989)
          The relationship between the two estimates of genetic variation at the DNA level, namely the number of segregating sites and the average number of nucleotide differences estimated from pairwise comparison, is investigated. It is found that the correlation between these two estimates is large when the sample size is small, and decreases slowly as the sample size increases. Using the relationship obtained, a statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis is developed. This method needs only the data of DNA polymorphism, namely the genetic variation within population at the DNA level. A simple method of computer simulation, that was used in order to obtain the distribution of a new statistic developed, is also presented. Applying this statistical method to the five regions of DNA sequences in Drosophila melanogaster, it is found that large insertion/deletion (greater than 100 bp) is deleterious. It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
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            Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data.

            We present here a framework for the study of molecular variation within a single species. Information on DNA haplotype divergence is incorporated into an analysis of variance format, derived from a matrix of squared-distances among all pairs of haplotypes. This analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) produces estimates of variance components and F-statistic analogs, designated here as phi-statistics, reflecting the correlation of haplotypic diversity at different levels of hierarchical subdivision. The method is flexible enough to accommodate several alternative input matrices, corresponding to different types of molecular data, as well as different types of evolutionary assumptions, without modifying the basic structure of the analysis. The significance of the variance components and phi-statistics is tested using a permutational approach, eliminating the normality assumption that is conventional for analysis of variance but inappropriate for molecular data. Application of AMOVA to human mitochondrial DNA haplotype data shows that population subdivisions are better resolved when some measure of molecular differences among haplotypes is introduced into the analysis. At the intraspecific level, however, the additional information provided by knowing the exact phylogenetic relations among haplotypes or by a nonlinear translation of restriction-site change into nucleotide diversity does not significantly modify the inferred population genetic structure. Monte Carlo studies show that site sampling does not fundamentally affect the significance of the molecular variance components. The AMOVA treatment is easily extended in several different directions and it constitutes a coherent and flexible framework for the statistical analysis of molecular data.
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              Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection.

               X Fu (1997)
              The main purpose of this article is to present several new statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against a class of alternative models, under which DNA polymorphisms tend to exhibit excesses of rare alleles or young mutations. Another purpose is to study the powers of existing and newly developed tests and to examine the detailed pattern of polymorphisms under population growth, genetic hitchhiking and background selection. It is found that the polymorphic patterns in a DNA sample under logistic population growth and genetic hitchhiking are very similar and that one of the newly developed tests, Fs, is considerably more powerful than existing tests for rejecting the hypothesis of neutrality of mutations. Background selection gives rise to quite different polymorphic patterns than does logistic population growth or genetic hitchhiking, although all of them show excesses of rare alleles or young mutations. We show that Fu and Li's tests are among the most powerful tests against background selection. Implications of these results are discussed.

                Author and article information

                Evol Bioinform Online
                Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
                Libertas Academica
                23 February 2007
                : 1
                : 47-50
                Computational and Molecular Population Genetics Lab, Zoological Institute, University of Berne, Baltzerstrasse 6, 3012 Berne, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Laurent Excoffier, Tel: +41 31 631 30 31, Fax: +41 31 631 48 88, Email: laurent.excoffier@
                Copyright © 2005 The authors.

                This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution By licence. For further information go to:

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