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      Stable semi-transparent CH3NH3PbI3 planar sandwich solar cells

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          Abstract

          Semi-transparent MAPbI 3 planar sandwich solar cells were fabricated by simply laminating an F doped tin oxide/TiO 2/MAPbI 3/wet hole transporting material with additives and PEDOT:PSS/indium tin oxide (ITO).

          Abstract

          Semi-transparent CH 3NH 3PbI 3 (MAPbI 3) planar sandwich solar cells could be fabricated by simply laminating an FTO (F doped tin oxide)/TiO 2/MAPbI 3/wet hole transporting material (HTM) with additives and PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid))/indium tin oxide (ITO). The best FTO/TiO 2/MAPbI 3/P3HT with additives/PEDOT:PSS/ITO planar sandwich structured solar cells exhibited a 12.8% (deviation: 11.7% ± 0.74%) average power conversion efficiency ( η avg) but poor visible transmittance due to strong absorption by P3HT. Meanwhile, the semi-transparent FTO/TiO 2/MAPbI 3/PTAA with additives/PEDOT:PSS/ITO planar sandwich solar cells exhibited a 15.8% (deviation: 14.45% ± 0.76%) η avg without significant JV hysteresis with respect to the forward and reverse scan directions. The average visible transmittance (AVT) was controlled from 17.3% to 6.3% and the corresponding η avg changed from 12.55% to 15.8%. The unsealed sandwich planar perovskite solar cells exhibited great air and humidity stability over 20 days due to the self-passivated device architecture of the sandwich type device.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Anomalous Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells.

          Perovskite solar cells have rapidly risen to the forefront of emerging photovoltaic technologies, exhibiting rapidly rising efficiencies. This is likely to continue to rise, but in the development of these solar cells there are unusual characteristics that have arisen, specifically an anomalous hysteresis in the current-voltage curves. We identify this phenomenon and show some examples of factors that make the hysteresis more or less extreme. We also demonstrate stabilized power output under working conditions and suggest that this is a useful parameter to present, alongside the current-voltage scan derived power conversion efficiency. We hypothesize three possible origins of the effect and discuss its implications on device efficiency and future research directions. Understanding and resolving the hysteresis is essential for further progress and is likely to lead to a further step improvement in performance.
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            Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance.

            Solar cells based on organometallic halide perovskite absorber layers are emerging as a high-performance photovoltaic technology. Using highly sensitive photothermal deflection and photocurrent spectroscopy, we measure the absorption spectrum of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films at room temperature. We find a high absorption coefficient with particularly sharp onset. Below the bandgap, the absorption is exponential over more than four decades with an Urbach energy as small as 15 meV, which suggests a well-ordered microstructure. No deep states are found down to the detection limit of ∼1 cm(-1). These results confirm the excellent electronic properties of perovskite thin films, enabling the very high open-circuit voltages reported for perovskite solar cells. Following intentional moisture ingress, we find that the absorption at photon energies below 2.4 eV is strongly reduced, pointing to a compositional change of the material.
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              Atomistic origins of high-performance in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells

              The performance of organometallic perovskite solar cells has rapidly surpassed that of both conventional dye-sensitised and organic photovoltaics. High power conversion efficiency can be realised in both mesoporous and thin-film device architectures. We address the origin of this success in the context of the materials chemistry and physics of the bulk perovskite as described by electronic structure calculations. In addition to the basic optoelectronic properties essential for an efficient photovoltaic device (spectrally suitable band gap, high optical absorption, low carrier effective masses), the materials are structurally and compositionally flexible. As we show, hybrid perovskites exhibit spontaneous electric polarisation; we also suggest ways in which this can be tuned through judicious choice of the organic cation. The presence of ferroelectric domains will result in internal junctions that may aid separation of photoexcited electron and hole pairs, and reduction of recombination through segregation of charge carriers. The combination of high dielectric constant and low effective mass promotes both Wannier-Mott exciton separation and effective ionisation of donor and acceptor defects. The photoferroic effect could be exploited in nanostructured films to generate a higher open circuit voltage and may contribute to the current-voltage hysteresis observed in perovskite solar cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EESNBY
                Energy & Environmental Science
                Energy Environ. Sci.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1754-5692
                1754-5706
                2015
                2015
                : 8
                : 10
                : 2922-2927
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Functional Crystallization Center (FCC)
                [2 ]Department of Chemical Engineering
                [3 ]Kyung Hee University
                [4 ]Yongin-si
                [5 ]Republic of Korea
                [6 ]Advanced Functional Thin Film Department
                [7 ]Changwon
                Article
                10.1039/C5EE01050K
                © 2015
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5EE01050K

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