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      Excess Risk of Stroke in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Populations

        1 , 1 , 1

      Stroke

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Towards a new developmental synthesis: adaptive developmental plasticity and human disease.

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            Excessive obesity in offspring of Pima Indian women with diabetes during pregnancy.

            We studied the relation in Pima Indians between obesity in children and diabetes during pregnancy in their mothers. Sixty-eight children of 49 women who had had diabetes during pregnancy had a higher prevalence of obesity than 541 children of 134 women who subsequently had diabetes (prediabetics) or than 1326 children of 446 women who remained nondiabetic. At 15 to 19 years of age, 58 per cent of the offspring of diabetics weighed 140 per cent or more of their desirable weight, as compared with 17 per cent of the offspring of nondiabetics and 25 per cent of those of prediabetics (P less than 0.001). Obesity in the offspring was directly related to maternal diabetes, since the association was not substantially confounded by maternal obesity. The findings strongly suggest that the prenatal environment of the offspring of diabetic women results in the development of obesity in childhood and early adulthood.
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              Birth weight, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance in Pima Indian children and young adults.

              To investigate the mechanisms underlying the association between birth weight and type 2 diabetes in a population-based study of 3,061 Pima Indians aged 5-29 years. Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin resistance was estimated according to the homeostatic model (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]). Relationships between birth weight, height, weight, fasting and postload concentrations of glucose and insulin, and HOMA-IR were examined with multiple regression analyses. Birth weight was positively related to current weight and height (P 10 years of age, and this relation was independent of current body size. In 2,272 nondiabetic subjects, after adjustment for weight and height, fasting and 2-h insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR were negatively correlated with birth weight. Low-birth-weight Pimas are thinner at ages 5-29 years, yet they are more insulin resistant relative to their body size than those of normal birth weight. By contrast, those with high birth weight are more obese but less insulin resistant relative to their body size. The insulin resistance of low-birth-weight Pima Indians may explain their increased risk for type 2 diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stroke
                Stroke
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0039-2499
                1524-4628
                June 2011
                June 2011
                : 42
                : 6
                : 1501-1502
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Medicine (A.G.T., D.A.C.), Southern Clinical School, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; National Stroke Research Institute (A.G.T., D.A.C.), Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, Australia; Indigenous Maternal and Child Health (S.E.), Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (S.E.), Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia;...
                Article
                10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.617746
                21493911
                © 2011

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