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      Differentiation between young adult Internet addicts, smokers, and healthy controls by the interaction between impulsivity and temporal lobe thickness


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          Background and aims

          Internet addiction is a non-substance-related addiction disorder with progressively growing prevalence. Internet addiction, like substance-related addictions, has been linked with high impulsivity, low inhibitory control, and poor decision-making abilities. Cortical thickness measurements and trait impulsivity have been shown to have a distinct relationship in addicts compared to healthy controls. Thus, we test whether the cortical correlates of trait impulsivity are different in Internet addicts and healthy controls, using an impulsive control group (smokers).


          Thirty Internet addicts (15 females) and 60 age- and gender-matched controls (30 smokers, all young adults aged 19–28 years) were scanned using a 3T MRI scanner and completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale.


          Internet addicts had a thinner left superior temporal cortex than controls. Impulsivity had a significant main effect on the left pars orbitalis and bilateral insula, regardless of group membership. We identified divergent relationships between trait impulsivity and thicknesses of the bilateral middle temporal, right superior temporal, left inferior temporal, and left transverse temporal cortices between Internet addicts and healthy controls. Further analysis with smokers revealed that the left middle temporal and left transverse temporal cortical thickness change might be exclusive to Internet addiction.


          The effects of impulsivity, combined with a long-term exposure to some specific substance or stimuli, might result in different natures of relationships between impulsivity and brain structure when compared to healthy controls.


          These results may indicate that Internet addiction is similar to substance-related addictions, such that inefficient self-control could result in maladaptive behavior and inability to resist Internet use.

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          Most cited references73

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          Issues for DSM-V: internet addiction.

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            Introduction to behavioral addictions.

            Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.
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              Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes.

              Impulsive behaviors are closely linked to drug use and abuse, both as contributors to use and as consequences of use. Trait impulsivity is an important determinant of drug use during development, and in adults momentary 'state' increases in impulsive behavior may increase the likelihood of drug use, especially in individuals attempting to abstain. Conversely, acute and chronic effects of drug use may increase impulsive behaviors, which may in turn facilitate further drug use. However, these effects depend on the behavioral measure used to assess impulsivity. This article reviews data from controlled studies investigating different measures of impulsive behaviors, including delay discounting, behavioral inhibition and a newly proposed measure of inattention. Our findings support the hypothesis that drugs of abuse alter performance across independent behavioral measures of impulsivity. The findings lay the groundwork for studying the cognitive and neurobiological substrates of impulsivity, and for future studies on the role of impulsive behavior as both facilitator and a result of drug use.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                11 February 2019
                March 2019
                : 8
                : 1
                : 35-47
                [1 ]Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [3 ]MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group , Pécs, Hungary
                [4 ]Pécs Diagnostic Centre , Pécs, Hungary
                [5 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [6 ]MTA-PTE Neurobiology of Stress Research Group, Szentágothai Research Center , Pécs, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Andras N. Zsidó; Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs, 6 Ifjusag Street, Pécs, Baranya H 7624, Hungary; Phone/Fax: +36 72 501 516; E-mail: zsido.andras@ 123456pte.hu
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated. (SID_1)

                : 23 May 2018
                : 24 November 2018
                : 24 December 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 80, Pages: 13
                Funding sources: This paper was supported by the 20765/3/2018 FEKUTSTRAT and 17886-4/2018/FEKUTSTRAT, PTE ÁOK-KA-2017-05 and PTE ÁOK-KA-2017-06, Hungarian Brain Research Program 20017-1.2.1-NKP-2017-00002 government-based funds, EFOP-3.6.2-16-2017-00008 “The role of neuro-inflammation in neurodegeneration: from molecules to clinics,” and EFOP-3.6.1.-16-2016-00004 “Comprehensive Development for Implementing Smart Specialization Strategies at the University of Pécs,” ÚNKP-17-3-I.-PTE-173, ÚNKP-17-4-I.-PTE-311, ÚNKP-17-4-I-PTE-76, ÚNKP-17-4-III-PTE-93, ÚNKP-17-3-III-PTE-315, and ÚNKP-18-3-IV-PTE-9 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities. NK and JJ were supported by the SNN125143 research grant, and GP and GO were supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
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                barratt impulsiveness scale,bis-11,cortical thickness,middle temporal cortex,problematic internet use,smokers


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