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      Discovery and Development of Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors

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          Abstract

          Glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are heterodimeric proteins with a common α-subunit and hormone-specific β-subunit. These hormones are dominant regulators of reproduction and metabolic processes. Receptors for the glycoprotein hormones belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH receptor are primarily expressed in somatic cells in ovary and testis to promote egg and sperm production in women and men, respectively. TSH receptor is expressed in thyroid cells and regulates the secretion of T3 and T4. Glycoprotein hormones bind to the large extracellular domain of the receptor and cause a conformational change in the receptor that leads to activation of more than one intracellular signaling pathway. Several small molecules have been described to activate/inhibit glycoprotein hormone receptors through allosteric sites of the receptor. Small molecule allosteric modulators have the potential to be administered orally to patients, thus improving the convenience of treatment. It has been a challenge to develop a small molecule allosteric agonist for glycoprotein hormones that can mimic the agonistic effects of the large natural ligand to activate similar signaling pathways. However, in the past few years, there have been several promising reports describing distinct chemical series with improved potency in preclinical models. In parallel, proposal of new structural model for FSHR and in silico docking studies of small molecule ligands to glycoprotein hormone receptors provide a giant leap on the understanding of the mechanism of action of the natural ligands and new chemical entities on the receptors. This review will focus on the current status of small molecule allosteric modulators of glycoprotein hormone receptors, their effects on common signaling pathways in cells, their utility for clinical application as demonstrated in preclinical models, and use of these molecules as novel tools to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of these receptors.

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          Most cited references154

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          Allosteric modulators of GPCRs: a novel approach for the treatment of CNS disorders.

          Despite G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) being among the most fruitful targets for marketed drugs, intense discovery efforts for several GPCR subtypes have failed to deliver selective drug candidates. Historically, drug discovery programmes for GPCR ligands have been dominated by efforts to develop agonists and antagonists that act at orthosteric sites for endogenous ligands. However, in recent years, there have been tremendous advances in the discovery of novel ligands for GPCRs that act at allosteric sites to regulate receptor function. These compounds provide high selectivity, novel modes of efficacy and may lead to novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple psychiatric and neurological human disorders.
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            The repertoire of G-protein-coupled receptors in fully sequenced genomes.

            The superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the largest and most studied families of proteins. We created Hidden Markov Models derived from sorted groups of GPCRs from our previous detailed phylogenetic classification of human GPCRs and added several other models derived from receptors not found in mammals. We used these models to search entire Genscan data sets from 13 species whose genomes are nearly completely sequenced. We found more than 5000 unique GPCRs that were divided into 15 main groups, and the largest one, the Rhodopsin family, was subdivided into 13 subclasses. The results show that the main families in the human genome, Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled, and Secretin, arose before the split of nematodes from the chordate lineage. Moreover, several of the subgroups of the Rhodopsin family arose before the split of the linage leading to vertebrates. We also searched expressed sequence tag (EST) databases and identified more than 20,000 sequences that match GPCRs. Although the GPCRs represent typically 1 to 2% of the Genscan predictions, the ESTs that match GPCRs are typically only 0.01 to 0.001%, indicating that GPCRs in most of the groups are expressed at low levels. We also provide searchable data sets that may be used for annotation and further detailed analysis of the GPCR family. This study provides an extensive overview of the expansion of the gene repertoire for families and subgroups of GPCRs.
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              The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: G Protein-Coupled Receptors

              The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/241556
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/269724
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/269472
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                14 September 2015
                2015
                : 6
                : 142
                Affiliations
                [1] 1TocopheRx Inc. , Burlington, MA, USA
                [2] 2EMD Serono Research and Development Institute Inc. , Billerica, MA, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: James A. Dias, University at Albany State University of New York, USA

                Reviewed by: Smita D. Mahale, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, India; John S. S. Davis, University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA

                *Correspondence: Selvaraj G. Nataraja, TocopheRx Inc., 15 New England Executive Park, Suite 1087, Burlington, MA 01803, USA, selva@ 123456tocopherx.com

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Molecular and Structural Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2015.00142
                4568768
                e6d59ef1-4480-4e7d-b863-e1995057ac47
                Copyright © 2015 Nataraja, Yu and Palmer.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 01 June 2015
                : 31 August 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 172, Pages: 15, Words: 12507
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                small molecule allosteric modulators,follicle-stimulating hormone,leutinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin,thyroid-stimulating hormone,g protein-coupled receptor,glycoprotein hormone receptors,leucine-rich repeat

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