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Ginsenoside Rg1 Improves In vitro-produced Embryo Quality by Increasing Glucose Uptake in Porcine Blastocysts

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      Abstract

      Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural compound with various efficacies and functions. It has beneficial effects on aging, diabetes, and immunity, as well as antioxidant and proliferative functions. However, its effect on porcine embryo development remains unknown. We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the in vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos after parthenogenetic activation in high-oxygen conditions. Ginsenoside treatment did not affect cleavage or blastocyst formation rates, but did increase the total cell number and reduced the rate of apoptosis. In addition, it had no effect on the expression of four apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Caspase 3, and tumor protein p53) or two metabolism-related genes (mechanistic target of rapamycin, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B), but increased the expression of Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), indicating that it may increase glucose uptake. In summary, treatment with the appropriate concentration of ginsenoside Rg1 (20 μg/mL) can increase glucose uptake, thereby improving the quality of embryos grown in high-oxygen conditions.

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      The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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        Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death.

        The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, research continues to focus on the elucidation and analysis of the cell cycle machinery and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To that end, the field of apoptosis research has been moving forward at an alarmingly rapid rate. Although many of the key apoptotic proteins have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or inaction of these proteins remain to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptosis in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptosis.
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          Tissue homeostasis is regulated by apoptosis, the cell-suicide programme that is executed by proteases called caspases. The Bcl2 family of intracellular proteins is the central regulator of caspase activation, and its opposing factions of anti- and pro-apoptotic members arbitrate the life-or-death decision. Apoptosis is often impaired in cancer and can limit conventional therapy. A better understanding of how the Bcl2 family controls caspase activation should result in new, more effective therapeutic approaches.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Animal Biotechnology Major, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea
            [2 ]Department of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
            [3 ]Designed Animal and Transplantation Research Institute, Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 232-916, Korea
            Author notes
            [* ]Corresponding Author: Chang-Kyu Lee. Tel: +82-2-880-4805, Fax: +82-2-873-4805, E-mail: leeck@ 123456snu.ac.kr
            Journal
            Asian-Australas J Anim Sci
            Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci
            Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
            Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
            1011-2367
            1976-5517
            August 2016
            18 October 2015
            : 29
            : 8
            : 1095-1101
            26954154 4932562 10.5713/ajas.15.0678 ajas-29-8-1095
            Copyright © 2016 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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