Research suggests that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has spread to monogamous women in India. Gender inequalities prevent women from asserting control over the circumstances that increase their vulnerability to infection. Men control most of the sexual decision-making. The present study explores views on use of microbicides by men and circumstances in which they might find microbicide use with their wives acceptable. Progressive in-depth interviews were conducted among 15 consenting men from Pune, India. Men felt that women with identifiable HIV risk, such as being a sex worker, having an HIV infected husbands or being educated; were more likely to use microbicides. Most high-risk men would permit or force their wives to use microbicides and had a higher intention to use microbicides compared with low-risk men probably due to perceived susceptibility. The majority of men with previous experience of microbicide use mentioned that privacy was important for gel use. Most low-risk men believed that they would be angry with covert gel use by their wives. They felt that covert use was impossible since their wives were under their control and they would notice the gel due to a change in their sexual experience. Low-risk men also opined that husband's permission was not required if he was HIV-infected or having extra-marital sex. Some men stressed the need for exercising sexual control while women inserted gel before sex. Men's risk-perception, knowledge about their safety concerns, as well as their behavior may affect acceptability of gel use, hence men's involvement and cooperation is imperative for microbicide gel use by women in India.