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Tuberculose chez le personnel de santé du secteur public au Burundi: fréquence et facteurs de risque Translated title: TB among health personnel of the public sector in Burundi: frequency and risk factors

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      Abstract

      Introduction

      Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la fréquence de la tuberculose (TB) chez le personnel de santé du secteur public en charge des patients tuberculeux et d’évaluer les facteurs de risque de contracter la tuberculose chez ce personnel au Burundi.

      Méthodes

      Il s’agit d’une étude transversale à visée analytique réalisée auprès de 300 travailleurs prestant dans 30 centres de dépistage et de traitement de la TB (CDT) au Burundi du 16 octobre au 15 novembre 2012. Les paramètres sociodémographiques et professionnels ainsi que l’antécédent de vaccination BCG de travailleurs ayant été touché par la TB ont été analysé et comparé à ceux de travailleurs qui ne l’ont pas été. Le seuil de signification a été fixé à p < 0,05.

      Résultats

      La fréquence de la TB chez le personnel de santé est de 15%. Le risque de souffrir de la TB est de près de 4 fois chez les travailleurs âgés d’au moins 50 ans (OR=3,73; 1,53-9,08), chez ceux qui n’ont jamais reçu de vaccin de BCG (OR=3,73; 1,24-11,03), chez ceux qui n’ont pas de cicatrice vaccinale de BCG (OR=3,80; 1,67-8,62) et chez ceux qui travaillent depuis au moins 6 ans dans un CDT (OR=3,79; 1,44-9,96); ce risque est de 9 fois chez ceux qui sont mariés (OR=9,42; 1,26-70,23), de 8 fois chez ceux qui n’aèrent pas leurs salles de travail (OR=8,20; 1,48-48,23) et de 6 fois chez ceux qui ont comme profession nettoyeur ou aide-soignant (OR=6,12; 2,92-12,82). Par contre, aucune corrélation statistiquement significative n’a été observée entre le fait de souffrir de la TB et le sexe mais aussi le nombre d’heures de contact d’un travailleur avec un patient tuberculeux (p>0,05).

      Conclusion

      L’âge, l’antécédent de vaccination de BCG ainsi que la majorité de paramètres professionnels sont en association avec la maladie TB des travailleurs de CDT. D’où, la maîtrise de certains facteurs de risque s’avère important pour faire face au fardeau de la TB parmi le personnel hospitalier.

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      Most cited references 29

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      Specific immune-based diagnosis of tuberculosis.

      Current diagnostic tests for tuberculosis based on tuberculin have poor specificity, and both BCG vaccination and exposure to non-tuberculosis mycobacteria produce a response similar to that induced by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The identification of regions of the M. tuberculosis genome that are not present in BCG and non-tuberculous mycobacteria provides a unique opportunity to develop new highly specific diagnostic reagents. We describe the current status of attempts to exploit this information and summarise recent research that has used defined antigens for an accurate and rapid test for tuberculosis infection based on the detection of T cells sensitised to M. tuberculosis either by blood tests in vitro or skin tests in vivo.
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        Discrepancy between the tuberculin skin test and the whole-blood interferon gamma assay for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in an intermediate tuberculosis-burden country.

        A recently developed whole-blood interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay based on stimulation with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens early secreted antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10 shows promise for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. To compare the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the whole-blood IFN-gamma assay in the diagnosis of latent TB infection according to the intensity of exposure. A prospective comparison between the whole-blood IFN-gamma assay and the TST using a 2-TU dose of purified protein derivative RT23 in a population with intermediate TB burden was conducted sequentially between February 1, 2004, and February 28, 2005, in a Korean tertiary referral hospital. Of 273 participants, 220 (95.7%) had received BCG vaccine. Participants were grouped according to their risk of infection: group 1, no identifiable risk of M tuberculosis infection (n = 99); group 2, recent casual contacts (n = 72); group 3, recent close contacts (n = 48); group 4, bacteriologically or pathologically confirmed TB patients (n = 54). Levels of agreement between the TST and the IFN-gamma assay and the likelihood of infection in the various groups. For the TST with a 10-mm induration cutoff, the positive response rate in group 1 was 51%; group 2, 60%; group 3, 71%, and group 4, 78%. For the IFN-gamma assay, the positive response rate in group 1 was 4%; group 2, 10%; group 3, 44%; and group 4, 81%. The overall agreement between the TST and the IFN-gamma assay in healthy volunteers was kappa = 0.16. The odds of a positive test result per unit increase in exposure across the 4 groups increased by a factor of 5.31 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.62-7.79) for the IFN-gamma assay and by a factor of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.20-1.91) for the TST (P<.001). Using a 15-mm induration cutoff for the TST did not make a substantial difference to the test results. The IFN-gamma assay is a better indicator of the risk of M tuberculosis infection than TST in a BCG-vaccinated population.
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          Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers in rural India: comparison of a whole-blood interferon gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing.

          Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers has not been adequately studied in developing countries using newer diagnostic tests. To estimate latent tuberculosis infection prevalence in health care workers using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and a whole-blood interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay; to determine agreement between the tests; and to compare their correlation with risk factors. A cross-sectional comparison study of 726 health care workers aged 18 to 61 years (median age, 22 years) with no history of active tuberculosis conducted from January to May 2004, at a rural medical school in India. A total of 493 (68%) of the health care workers had direct contact with patients with tuberculosis and 514 (71%) had BCG vaccine scars. Tuberculin skin testing was performed using 1-TU dose of purified protein derivative RT23, and the IFN-gamma assay was performed by measuring IFN-gamma response to early secreted antigenic target 6, culture filtrate protein 10, and a portion of tuberculosis antigen TB7.7. Agreement between TST and the IFN-gamma assay, and comparison of the tests with respect to their association with risk factors. A large proportion of the health care workers were latently infected; 360 (50%) were positive by either TST or IFN-gamma assay, and 226 (31%) were positive by both tests. The prevalence estimates of TST and IFN-gamma assay positivity were comparable (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-45% and 40%; 95% CI, 37%-43%, respectively). Agreement between the tests was high (81.4%; kappa = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.56-0.67). Increasing age and years in the health profession were significant risk factors for both IFN-gamma assay and TST positivity. BCG vaccination had little impact on TST and IFN-gamma assay results. Our study showed high latent tuberculosis infection prevalence in Indian health care workers, high agreement between TST and IFN-gamma assay, and similar association between positive test results and risk factors. Although TST and IFN-gamma assay appear comparable in this population, they have different performance and operational characteristics; therefore, the decision to select one test over the other will depend on the population, purpose of testing, and resource availability.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo
            [2 ]Faculté de Médecine, Université de Ngozi, Burundi
            [3 ]Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales d’Uvira, République Démocratique du Congo
            Author notes
            [& ]Corresponding author: Olivier Mukuku, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lubumbashi, RD Congo
            Journal
            Pan Afr Med J
            Pan Afr Med J
            PAMJ
            The Pan African Medical Journal
            The African Field Epidemiology Network
            1937-8688
            18 December 2013
            2013
            : 16
            4024431
            PAMJ-16-140
            10.11604/pamj.2013.16.140.3209
            © Olivier Mukuku et al.

            The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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