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      Species invasions and the phylogenetic signal in geographical range size : XXXX

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          Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Usinglme4

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            The global diversity of birds in space and time.

            Current global patterns of biodiversity result from processes that operate over both space and time and thus require an integrated macroecological and macroevolutionary perspective. Molecular time trees have advanced our understanding of the tempo and mode of diversification and have identified remarkable adaptive radiations across the tree of life. However, incomplete joint phylogenetic and geographic sampling has limited broad-scale inference. Thus, the relative prevalence of rapid radiations and the importance of their geographic settings in shaping global biodiversity patterns remain unclear. Here we present, analyse and map the first complete dated phylogeny of all 9,993 extant species of birds, a widely studied group showing many unique adaptations. We find that birds have undergone a strong increase in diversification rate from about 50 million years ago to the near present. This acceleration is due to a number of significant rate increases, both within songbirds and within other young and mostly temperate radiations including the waterfowl, gulls and woodpeckers. Importantly, species characterized with very high past diversification rates are interspersed throughout the avian tree and across geographic space. Geographically, the major differences in diversification rates are hemispheric rather than latitudinal, with bird assemblages in Asia, North America and southern South America containing a disproportionate number of species from recent rapid radiations. The contribution of rapidly radiating lineages to both temporal diversification dynamics and spatial distributions of species diversity illustrates the benefits of an inclusive geographical and taxonomical perspective. Overall, whereas constituent clades may exhibit slowdowns, the adaptive zone into which modern birds have diversified since the Cretaceous may still offer opportunities for diversification.
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              Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution.

              M. Pagel (1999)
              Phylogenetic trees describe the pattern of descent amongst a group of species. With the rapid accumulation of DNA sequence data, more and more phylogenies are being constructed based upon sequence comparisons. The combination of these phylogenies with powerful new statistical approaches for the analysis of biological evolution is challenging widely held beliefs about the history and evolution of life on Earth.

                Author and article information

                Global Ecology and Biogeography
                Global Ecol Biogeogr
                September 2018
                September 2018
                October 30 2018
                : 27
                : 9
                : 1080-1092
                [1 ]Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research; University College London; London United Kingdom
                [2 ]Centre for Conservation Science and Technology; School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide; South Australia Australia
                [3 ]Department of Animal and Plant Sciences; University of Sheffield; Sheffield United Kingdom
                [4 ]Institute of Zoology; Zoological Society of London; London United Kingdom
                © 2018





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