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      Small reductions in cargo vessel speed substantially reduce noise impacts to marine mammals

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          Abstract

          Global reductions in the underwater radiated noise levels from cargo vessels are needed to reduce increasing cumulative impacts to marine wildlife. We use a vessel exposure simulation model to examine how reducing vessel source levels through slowdowns and technological modifications can lessen impacts on marine mammals. We show that the area exposed to ship noise reduces markedly with moderate source-level reductions that can be readily achieved with small reductions in speed. Moreover, slowdowns reduce all impacts to marine mammals despite the longer time that a slower vessel takes to pass an animal. We conclude that cumulative noise impacts from the global fleet can be reduced immediately by slowdowns. This solution requires no modification to ships and is scalable from local speed reductions in sensitive areas to ocean basins. Speed reductions can be supplemented by routing vessels away from critical habitats and by technological modifications to reduce vessel noise.

          Abstract

          Cumulative noise impacts on marine mammals from the global cargo vessel fleet can be reduced immediately by slowing down.

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          Most cited references49

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          Human-caused Disturbance Stimuli as a Form of Predation Risk

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            Acoustic masking in marine ecosystems: intuitions, analysis, and implication

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              Anthropogenic and natural sources of ambient noise in the ocean

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing - original draftRole: Writing - review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing - review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing - review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: Writing - review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing - original draftRole: Writing - review & editing
                Journal
                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                sciadv
                advances
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                2375-2548
                June 2023
                21 June 2023
                : 9
                : 25
                : eadf2987
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Zoophysiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000, Denmark.
                [ 2 ]Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000, Denmark.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Email: charlotte.findlay@ 123456bio.au.dk
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4818-2184
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1438-0281
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4422-7800
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8424-3197
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5208-5259
                Article
                adf2987
                10.1126/sciadv.adf2987
                10284543
                37343089
                eba5694e-f7c3-44d7-b12a-36d7fa8d6f20
                Copyright © 2023 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 18 October 2022
                : 01 May 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010661, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme;
                Award ID: 101006443
                Categories
                Research Article
                Earth, Environmental, Ecological, and Space Sciences
                SciAdv r-articles
                Applied Ecology
                Science Policy
                Applied Ecology
                Custom metadata
                Lou Notario

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