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      The epigenetic regulation of centromeres and telomeres in plants and animals

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          The centromere is a chromosomal region where the kinetochore is formed, which is the attachment point of spindle fibers. Thus, it is responsible for the correct chromosome segregation during cell division. Telomeres protect chromosome ends against enzymatic degradation and fusions, and localize chromosomes in the cell nucleus. For this reason, centromeres and telomeres are parts of each linear chromosome that are necessary for their proper functioning. More and more research results show that the identity and functions of these chromosomal regions are epigenetically determined. Telomeres and centromeres are both usually described as highly condensed heterochromatin regions. However, the epigenetic nature of centromeres and telomeres is unique, as epigenetic modifications characteristic of both eu- and heterochromatin have been found in these areas. This specificity allows for the proper functioning of both regions, thereby affecting chromosome homeostasis. This review focuses on demonstrating the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the functioning of centromeres and telomeres in plants and animals.

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          Shotgun bisulphite sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome reveals DNA methylation patterning.

          Cytosine DNA methylation is important in regulating gene expression and in silencing transposons and other repetitive sequences. Recent genomic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that many endogenous genes are methylated either within their promoters or within their transcribed regions, and that gene methylation is highly correlated with transcription levels. However, plants have different types of methylation controlled by different genetic pathways, and detailed information on the methylation status of each cytosine in any given genome is lacking. To this end, we generated a map at single-base-pair resolution of methylated cytosines for Arabidopsis, by combining bisulphite treatment of genomic DNA with ultra-high-throughput sequencing using the Illumina 1G Genome Analyser and Solexa sequencing technology. This approach, termed BS-Seq, unlike previous microarray-based methods, allows one to sensitively measure cytosine methylation on a genome-wide scale within specific sequence contexts. Here we describe methylation on previously inaccessible components of the genome and analyse the DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution. We also describe the effect of various DNA methylation mutants on genome-wide methylation patterns, and demonstrate that our newly developed library construction and computational methods can be applied to large genomes such as that of mouse.
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            The biology of chromatin remodeling complexes.

            The packaging of chromosomal DNA by nucleosomes condenses and organizes the genome, but occludes many regulatory DNA elements. However, this constraint also allows nucleosomes and other chromatin components to actively participate in the regulation of transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. To enable dynamic access to packaged DNA and to tailor nucleosome composition in chromosomal regions, cells have evolved a set of specialized chromatin remodeling complexes (remodelers). Remodelers use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move, destabilize, eject, or restructure nucleosomes. Here, we address many aspects of remodeler biology: their targeting, mechanism, regulation, shared and unique properties, and specialization for particular biological processes. We also address roles for remodelers in development, cancer, and human syndromes.
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              Identification of novel transcripts in annotated genomes using RNA-Seq.

              We describe a new 'reference annotation based transcript assembly' problem for RNA-Seq data that involves assembling novel transcripts in the context of an existing annotation. This problem arises in the analysis of expression in model organisms, where it is desirable to leverage existing annotations for discovering novel transcripts. We present an algorithm for reference annotation-based transcript assembly and show how it can be used to rapidly investigate novel transcripts revealed by RNA-Seq in comparison with a reference annotation. The methods described in this article are implemented in the Cufflinks suite of software for RNA-Seq, freely available from http://bio.math.berkeley.edu/cufflinks. The software is released under the BOOST license. cole@broadinstitute.org; lpachter@math.berkeley.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                07 July 2020
                : 14
                : 2
                : 265-311
                [1 ] Institute of Biology, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland University of Szczecin Szczecin Poland
                [2 ] Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Center, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland University of Szczecin Szczecin Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Magdalena Achrem ( magdalena.achrem@ 123456usz.edu.pl )

                Academic editor: S. Galkina

                Magdalena Achrem, Izabela Szućko, Anna Kalinka

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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