128
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein

      research-article

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Summary

          The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S 1/S 2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.

          Graphical Abstract

          Highlights

          • SARS-CoV-2 uses ACE2 to enter target cells

          • SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV bind with similar affinities to ACE2

          • Structures of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in two conformations

          • SARS-CoV polyclonal antibodies inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated entry into cells

          Abstract

          SARS-CoV-2, a newly emerged pathogen spreading worldwide, binds with high affinity to human ACE2 and uses it as an entry receptor to invade target cells. Cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in two distinct conformations, along with inhibition of spike-mediated entry by SARS-CoV polyclonal antibodies, provide a blueprint for the design of vaccines and therapeutics.

          Related collections

          Most cited references28

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

            Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation

              Structure of the nCoV trimeric spike The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) to be a public health emergency of international concern. The virus binds to host cells through its trimeric spike glycoprotein, making this protein a key target for potential therapies and diagnostics. Wrapp et al. determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution structure of the 2019-nCoV trimeric spike protein by cryo–electron microscopy. Using biophysical assays, the authors show that this protein binds at least 10 times more tightly than the corresponding spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–CoV to their common host cell receptor. They also tested three antibodies known to bind to the SARS-CoV spike protein but did not detect binding to the 2019-nCoV spike protein. These studies provide valuable information to guide the development of medical counter-measures for 2019-nCoV. Science, this issue p. 1260
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Cell
                Cell Press
                0092-8674
                1097-4172
                9 March 2020
                9 March 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
                [2 ]Institute Pasteur & CNRS UMR 3569, Unité de Virologie Structurale, Paris 75015, France
                [3 ]Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
                [4 ]Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author dveesler@ 123456uw.edu
                [5]

                These authors contributed equally

                [6]

                Lead Contact

                Article
                S0092-8674(20)30262-2
                10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.058
                7102599
                32155444
                edaf5839-2dd8-42a4-8168-f02f71e694b3
                © 2020 Elsevier Inc.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology
                coronavirus,sars-cov-2,sars-cov,spike glycoprotein,antibodies,neutralizing antibodies,viral receptor,cryo-em

                Comments

                Comment on this article