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      Single-cell imaging tools for brain energy metabolism: a review

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          Abstract.

          Neurophotonics comes to light at a time in which advances in microscopy and improved calcium reporters are paving the way toward high-resolution functional mapping of the brain. This review relates to a parallel revolution in metabolism. We argue that metabolism needs to be approached both in vitro and in vivo, and that it does not just exist as a low-level platform but is also a relevant player in information processing. In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensors have been introduced to measure glucose, glutamate, ATP, NADH, lactate, and pyruvate in mammalian cells. Reporting relative metabolite levels, absolute concentrations, and metabolic fluxes, these sensors are instrumental for the discovery of new molecular mechanisms. Sensors continue to be developed, which together with a continued improvement in protein expression strategies and new imaging technologies, herald an exciting era of high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the brain and other organs.

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          Most cited references 126

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          A default mode of brain function.

          A baseline or control state is fundamental to the understanding of most complex systems. Defining a baseline state in the human brain, arguably our most complex system, poses a particular challenge. Many suspect that left unconstrained, its activity will vary unpredictably. Despite this prediction we identify a baseline state of the normal adult human brain in terms of the brain oxygen extraction fraction or OEF. The OEF is defined as the ratio of oxygen used by the brain to oxygen delivered by flowing blood and is remarkably uniform in the awake but resting state (e.g., lying quietly with eyes closed). Local deviations in the OEF represent the physiological basis of signals of changes in neuronal activity obtained with functional MRI during a wide variety of human behaviors. We used quantitative metabolic and circulatory measurements from positron-emission tomography to obtain the OEF regionally throughout the brain. Areas of activation were conspicuous by their absence. All significant deviations from the mean hemisphere OEF were increases, signifying deactivations, and resided almost exclusively in the visual system. Defining the baseline state of an area in this manner attaches meaning to a group of areas that consistently exhibit decreases from this baseline, during a wide variety of goal-directed behaviors monitored with positron-emission tomography and functional MRI. These decreases suggest the existence of an organized, baseline default mode of brain function that is suspended during specific goal-directed behaviors.
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            A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function.

            Understanding the cell-cell interactions that control CNS development and function has long been limited by the lack of methods to cleanly separate neural cell types. Here we describe methods for the prospective isolation and purification of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes from developing and mature mouse forebrain. We used FACS (fluorescent-activated cell sorting) to isolate astrocytes from transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of an S100beta promoter. Using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays, we then created a transcriptome database of the expression levels of >20,000 genes by gene profiling these three main CNS neural cell types at various postnatal ages between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P30. This database provides a detailed global characterization and comparison of the genes expressed by acutely isolated astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. We found that Aldh1L1 is a highly specific antigenic marker for astrocytes with a substantially broader pattern of astrocyte expression than the traditional astrocyte marker GFAP. Astrocytes were enriched in specific metabolic and lipid synthetic pathways, as well as the draper/Megf10 and Mertk/integrin alpha(v)beta5 phagocytic pathways suggesting that astrocytes are professional phagocytes. Our findings call into question the concept of a "glial" cell class as the gene profiles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are as dissimilar to each other as they are to neurons. This transcriptome database of acutely isolated purified astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes provides a resource to the neuroscience community by providing improved cell-type-specific markers and for better understanding of neural development, function, and disease.
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              Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin.

              Important Ca2+ signals in the cytosol and organelles are often extremely localized and hard to measure. To overcome this problem we have constructed new fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ that are genetically encoded without cofactors and are targetable to specific intracellular locations. We have dubbed these fluorescent indicators 'cameleons'. They consist of tandem fusions of a blue- or cyan-emitting mutant of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), calmodulin, the calmodulin-binding peptide M13, and an enhanced green- or yellow-emitting GFP. Binding of Ca2+ makes calmodulin wrap around the M13 domain, increasing the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the flanking GFPs. Calmodulin mutations can tune the Ca2+ affinities to measure free Ca2+ concentrations in the range 10(-8) to 10(-2) M. We have visualized free Ca2+ dynamics in the cytosol, nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum of single HeLa cells transfected with complementary DNAs encoding chimaeras bearing appropriate localization signals. Ca2+ concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum of individual cells ranged from 60 to 400 microM at rest, and 1 to 50 microM after Ca2+ mobilization. FRET is also an indicator of the reversible intermolecular association of cyan-GFP-labelled calmodulin with yellow-GFP-labelled M13. Thus FRET between GFP mutants can monitor localized Ca2+ signals and protein heterodimerization in individual live cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neurophotonics
                Neurophotonics
                NEUROW
                NPh
                Neurophotonics
                Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
                2329-423X
                2329-4248
                29 May 2014
                July 2014
                : 1
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [a ]Centro de Estudios Científicos , Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia, 5110466, Chile
                [b ]Universidad Austral de Chile , Valdivia, Chile
                Author notes
                [* ]Address all correspondence to: L. Felipe Barros, E-mail: fbarros@ 123456cecs.cl
                Article
                NPH-14008VSSR 14008VSSR
                10.1117/1.NPh.1.1.011004
                4478754
                © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 130, Pages: 9
                Funding
                Funded by: Fondecyt
                Award ID: 1130095
                Categories
                Special Section Papers
                Paper
                Special Section on the BRAIN Initiative
                Custom metadata
                San Martín et al.: Single-cell imaging tools for brain energy metabolism: a review

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