Ingrid Kröncke , Hermann Neumann , Joachim W. Dippner , Sally Holbrook , Thomas Lamy , Robert Miller , Bachisio Mario Padedda , Silvia Pulina , Daniel C. Reed , Marko Reinikainen , Cecilia T. Satta , Nicola Sechi , Thomas Soltwedel , Sanna Suikkanen , Antonella Lugliè
May 03 2019
May 03 2019
Data from five sites of the International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network in the North-Eastern Pacific, Western Arctic Ocean, Northern Baltic Sea, South-Eastern North Sea and in the Western Mediterranean Sea were analyzed by dynamic factor analysis (DFA) to trace common multi-year trends in abundance and composition of phytoplankton, benthic fauna and temperate reef fish. Multiannual trends were related to climate and environmental variables to study interactions. Two common trends in biological responses were detected, with temperature and climate indices as explanatory variables in four of the five LTER sites considered. Only one trend was observed at the fifth site, the Northern Baltic Sea, where no explanatory variables were identified. Our findings revealed quasi-synchronous biological shifts in the different marine ecosystems coincident with the 2000 climatic regime shift and provided evidence on a possible further biological shift around 2010. The observed biological modifications were coupled with abrupt or continuous increase in sea water and air temperature confirming the key-role of temperature in structuring marine communities.