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      Early Myeloid Dendritic Cell Dysregulation is Predictive of Disease Progression in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

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          Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are lost from blood in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but the mechanism for this loss and its relationship to disease progression are not known. We studied the mDC response in blood and lymph nodes of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques with different disease outcomes. Early changes in blood mDC number were inversely correlated with virus load and reflective of eventual disease outcome, as animals with stable infection that remained disease-free for more than one year had average increases in blood mDC of 200% over preinfection levels at virus set-point, whereas animals that progressed rapidly to AIDS had significant loss of mDC at this time. Short term antiretroviral therapy (ART) transiently reversed mDC loss in progressor animals, whereas discontinuation of ART resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in mDC over preinfection levels only in stable animals, approaching 10-fold in some cases. Progressive SIV infection was associated with increased CCR7 expression on blood mDC and an 8-fold increase in expression of CCL19 mRNA in lymph nodes, consistent with increased mDC recruitment. Paradoxically, lymph node mDC did not accumulate in progressive infection but rather died from caspase-8-dependent apoptosis that was reduced by ART, indicating that increased recruitment is offset by increased death. Lymph node mDC from both stable and progressor animals remained responsive to exogenous stimulation with a TLR7/8 agonist. These data suggest that mDC are mobilized in SIV infection but that an increase in the CCR7-CCL19 chemokine axis associated with high virus burden in progressive infection promotes exodus of activated mDC from blood into lymph nodes where they die from apoptosis. We suggest that inflamed lymph nodes serve as a sink for mDC through recruitment, activation and death that contributes to AIDS pathogenesis.

          Author Summary

          Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are essential innate immune system cells that are lost from blood in human immunodeficiency virus infection through an ill-defined mechanism. We studied the kinetics of the mDC response in blood and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques infected with the closely related simian immunodeficiency virus. We found that differences in the number of blood mDC correlated with eventual disease outcome, as at virus set-point mDC were increased in blood in animals remaining disease free but lost from blood in animals that progressed rapidly to AIDS. mDC loss was linked to an increase in the chemokine axis responsible for mDC recruitment to lymph nodes; however, mDC did not accumulate in tissues but rather died from apoptosis. Lymph node mDC remained responsive to stimulation with a TLR7/8 agonist during infection. Importantly, mDC dysregulation was partially reversed by antiretroviral therapy. These data indicate that chronic mDC recruitment, activation and death within lymph nodes precede development of disease in SIV infected monkeys and may play a role in AIDS pathogenesis.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative C(T) method.

          Two different methods of presenting quantitative gene expression exist: absolute and relative quantification. Absolute quantification calculates the copy number of the gene usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative gene expression presents the data of the gene of interest relative to some calibrator or internal control gene. A widely used method to present relative gene expression is the comparative C(T) method also referred to as the 2 (-DeltaDeltaC(T)) method. This protocol provides an overview of the comparative C(T) method for quantitative gene expression studies. Also presented here are various examples to present quantitative gene expression data using this method.
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            Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection.

            Chronic activation of the immune system is a hallmark of progressive HIV infection and better predicts disease outcome than plasma viral load, yet its etiology remains obscure. Here we show that circulating microbial products, probably derived from the gastrointestinal tract, are a cause of HIV-related systemic immune activation. Circulating lipopolysaccharide, which we used as an indicator of microbial translocation, was significantly increased in chronically HIV-infected individuals and in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (P
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              Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

              Monocytes and macrophages are critical effectors and regulators of inflammation and the innate immune response, the immediate arm of the immune system. Dendritic cells initiate and regulate the highly pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses and are central to the development of immunologic memory and tolerance. Recent in vivo experimental approaches in the mouse have unveiled new aspects of the developmental and lineage relationships among these cell populations. Despite this, the origin and differentiation cues for many tissue macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cell subsets in mice, and the corresponding cell populations in humans, remain to be elucidated.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS Pathog
                PLoS Pathogens
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                December 2010
                December 2010
                23 December 2010
                : 6
                : 12
                [1 ]Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                [3 ]Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                SAIC-Frederick, United States of America
                Author notes

                ¤: Current address: Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

                Conceived and designed the experiments: VW SMBB. Performed the experiments: VW ACS XL KNB. Analyzed the data: VW ACS SMBB. Wrote the paper: VW SMBB.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.
                Pages: 13
                Research Article
                Immunology/Immune Response
                Immunology/Innate Immunity
                Infectious Diseases/HIV Infection and AIDS

                Infectious disease & Microbiology


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