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      Las bacterias halófilas y sus aplicaciones biotecnológicas Translated title: The halophilic bacteria and their biotechnological applications

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          Abstract

          Los autores presentan una extensa revisión sobre las bacterias halófilas y sus aplicaciones biotecnológicas. Revisan aspectos relacionados con su ecología en los ambientes hipersalinos y sus características como microorganismos extremófilos y sus diversas e importantes aplicaciones y potencialidades en la industria y en la biotecnología. Estas bacterias son fáciles de cultivar y presentan escasos requerimientos nutricionales; su tolerancia a elevadas concentraciones salinas reduce al mínimo los riesgos de contaminaciones en el laboratorio, lo que permitiría su explotación como fábricas celulares alternativas a Escherichia coli, para la producción de proteínas recombinantes. Son útiles en la producción de enzimas, polímeros, solutos compatibles y en la biodegradación de residuos, así como en la producción de alimentos fermentados. La revisión abarca aspectos relativos a la microbiología de los actinomicetos halófilos, refiriéndose a estudios realizados por los autores en cepas de actinomicetos halófilos aislados en medios hipersalinos de México y España.

          Translated abstract

          The authors present an extensive review on the halophilic bacterias and their biotechnological applications, along with some aspects related to their ecological behaviour in hypersaline environments. They also examined their characteristics as extremophilic microorganisms, including their several important applications and potential use in the industry and biotechnology. Due to their low nutritional requirements and tolerance to high saline concentrations, these bacteria are easy to be cultivated and the laboratory risks contamination is minimal. These facts allow them to be used as alternative cellular factories instead of Escherichia coli in the production of recombining proteins. They are also useful in the production of enzymes, polymers, compatible solutes, residues biodegradation process, as well as, fermented food production. Finally, this work includes aspects related to halophilic actinomycetes microbiology, discussed in previous studies carried out by the authors in strains of halophilic actinomycetes isolated in hypersaline mediums in Mexico and Spain.

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          Most cited references 117

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          Bioenergetic aspects of halophilism.

           Aharon Oren (1999)
          Examination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic Archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not.
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            Biology of moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria.

            The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms.
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              Potential of halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms for biotechnology.

              Halotolerant or halophilic microorganisms, able to live in saline environments, offer a multitude of actual or potential applications in various fields of biotechnology. The technical applications of bacteriorhodopsin comprise holography, spatial light modulators, optical computing, and optical memories. Compatible solutes are useful as stabilizers of biomolecules and whole cells, salt antagonists, or stress-protective agents. Biopolymers, such as biosurfactants and exopolysaccharides, are of interest for microbially enhanced oil recovery. Other useful biosubstances are enzymes, such as new isomerases and hydrolases, that are active and stable at high salt contents. Halotolerant microorganisms play an essential role in food biotechnology for the production of fermented food and food supplements. The degradation or transformation of a range of organic pollutants and the production of alternative energy are other fields of applications of these groups of extremophiles.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rsvm
                Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología
                Rev. Soc. Ven. Microbiol.
                Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. (Caracas )
                1315-2556
                January 2004
                : 24
                : 1-2
                : 12-23
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco Mëxico
                [2 ] Universidad de Los Andes Venezuela
                Article
                S1315-25562004000100004
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                MICROBIOLOGY

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