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      Regulation of arterial diameter and wall [Ca2+] in cerebral arteries of rat by membrane potential and intravascular pressure.

      The Journal of Physiology

      Video Recording, physiology, Vasodilation, Vasoconstriction, Time Factors, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Rats, pharmacology, Potassium, Nisoldipine, drug effects, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Microelectrodes, Membrane Potentials, Female, Electrophysiology, Cerebral Arteries, metabolism, Calcium, Blood Pressure, Animals

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          Abstract

          1. The regulation of intracellular [Ca2+] in the smooth muscle cells in the wall of small pressurized cerebral arteries (100-200 micron) of rat was studied using simultaneous digital fluorescence video imaging of arterial diameter and wall [Ca2+], combined with microelectrode measurements of arterial membrane potential. 2. Elevation of intravascular pressure (from 10 to 100 mmHg) caused a membrane depolarization from -63 +/- 1 to -36 +/- 2 mV, increased arterial wall [Ca2+] from 119 +/- 10 to 245 +/- 9 nM, and constricted the arteries from 208 +/- 10 micron (fully dilated, Ca2+ free) to 116 +/- 7 micron or by 45 % ('myogenic tone'). 3. Pressure-induced increases in arterial wall [Ca2+] and vasoconstriction were blocked by inhibitors of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (diltiazem and nisoldipine) or to the same extent by removal of external Ca2+. 4. At a steady pressure (i.e. under isobaric conditions at 60 mmHg), the membrane potential was stable at -45 +/- 1 mV, intracellular [Ca2+] was 190 +/- 10 nM, and arteries were constricted by 41 % (to 115 +/- 7 micron from 196 +/- 8 micron fully dilated). Under this condition of -45 +/- 5 mV at 60 mmHg, the voltage sensitivity of wall [Ca2+] and diameter were 7.5 nM mV-1 and 7.5 micron mV-1, respectively, resulting in a Ca2+ sensitivity of diameter of 1 mum nM-1. 5. Membrane potential depolarization from -58 to -23 mV caused pressurized arteries (to 60 mmHg) to constrict over their entire working range, i.e. from maximally dilated to constricted. This depolarization was associated with an elevation of arterial wall [Ca2+] from 124 +/- 7 to 347 +/- 12 nM. These increases in arterial wall [Ca2+] and vasoconstriction were blocked by L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitors. 6. The relationship between arterial wall [Ca2+] and membrane potential was not significantly different under isobaric (60 mmHg) and non-isobaric conditions (10-100 mmHg), suggesting that intravascular pressure regulates arterial wall [Ca2+] through changes in membrane potential. 7. The results are consistent with the idea that intravascular pressure causes membrane potential depolarization, which opens voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, acting as 'voltage sensors', thus increasing Ca2+ entry and arterial wall [Ca2+], which leads to vasoconstriction.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by calcium sparks.

          Local increases in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) resulting from activation of the ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle cause arterial dilation. Ryanodine-sensitive, spontaneous local increases in [Ca2+]i (Ca2+ sparks) from the SR were observed just under the surface membrane of single smooth muscle cells from myogenic cerebral arteries. Ryanodine and thapsigargin inhibited Ca2+ sparks and Ca(2+)-dependent potassium (KCa) currents, suggesting that Ca2+ sparks activate KCa channels. Furthermore, KCa channels activated by Ca2+ sparks appeared to hyperpolarize and dilate pressurized myogenic arteries because ryanodine and thapsigargin depolarized and constricted these arteries to an extent similar to that produced by blockers of KCa channels. Ca2+ sparks indirectly cause vasodilation through activation of KCa channels, but have little direct effect on spatially averaged [Ca2+]i, which regulates contraction.
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            On the local reactions of the arterial wall to changes of internal pressure.

             M. Bayliss (1902)
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              Ionomycin enhances Ca2+ influx by stimulating store-regulated cation entry and not by a direct action at the plasma membrane.

              In fura-2-loaded ECV304 cells ionomycin elicited a saturable biphasic change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), where the initial phase represented mobilization of intracellular stores and the sustained component represented Ca2+ influx. To examine whether ionomycin could stimulate influx via a store-dependent mechanism. Mn2+ entry was monitored by the quenching of fura-2 fluorescence: influx was enhanced even after ionomycin wash-out, provided that internal stores were not refilled with Ca2+. Moreover, the maximal rate of histamine-stimulated Mn2+ entry was unaffected by ionomycin, suggesting a common route of entry. The Ca(2+)-entry blocker SK&F 96365 inhibited both the ionomycin-induced Mn2+ entry and the sustained [Ca2+]i response to the ionophore (leaving the initial peak [Ca2+]i response unaffected). In other experiments, although addition of ionomycin further increased the plateau phase induced by 100 microM histamine, the increase was completely abolished by pretreatment with the store Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Furthermore, in store-depleted cells, re-addition of 1 mM extracellular Ca2+ (in the presence of CPA plus histamine) led to a rapid rise in [Ca2+]i, dependent on Ca2+ influx, with kinetics that were not enhanced by ionomycin. These data suggest that ionomycin acts primarily at the level of the internal Ca2+ stores, so that, at the concentrations used here (< or = 1 microM), it increases Ca2+ (and Mn2+) influx via activation of endogenous entry pathways and not by plasmalemmal translocation.
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                2230857
                9490839

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