Recent findings suggest that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be a physiological regulator of prolactin secretion and may also be involved in the control of LH secretion. In the present work we have studied the effect of the blockade of endogenous VIP by means of the injection of a specific rabbit anti-VIP serum, in male and female rats with hyperprolactinemia. The administration of 0.5 ml of the VIP antiserum in ovariectomized rats given an acute or chronic treatment with 17β-estradiol induced a significant decrease in serum prolactin and LH levels as compared with estrogenized-control rats injected with normal rabbit serum. Anti-VIP serum also reduced serum LH levels in ovariectomized rats not treated with estrogens. The administration of the same antiserum decreased serum prolactin levels in male rats implanted with 2 anterior pituitary glands under the kidney capsule. On the other hand, the injection of the anti-VIP serum in the morning in proestrus rats brought about an increase in serum prolactin and LH levels in the afternoon of the same day. These results confirm previous data showing that VIP is a stimulator of prolactin release, and may also participate in the control of LH secretion in ovariectomized rats acting as a facilitatory factor. During proestrus however, VIP may act in an opposite way, inhibiting, rather than stimulating, prolactin and LH release.