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      Information Needs in COPD After an Educational Programme: Influence in Exacerbations and Admissions

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          Improving patients’ information needs (IN) may contribute to better control in COPD. This study analyses IN using Lung Information Needs Questionnaire (LINQ) following an educational intervention, evaluates how clinical characteristics modify IN, and studies high IN as a prognostic factor for COPD exacerbations and hospital admissions.


          Cohort of 143 patients with initial diagnosis of COPD included in a structured educational program. Two months after completing the program, IN was assessed using LINQ. Correlations between IN and clinical variables of COPD and distribution of IN in different clinical groups were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to determine influence of IN on exacerbations and COPD admissions over the following year.


          LINQ scored 6.3±2.9. There were no differences in LINQ scoring between different clinical groups, but LINQ score positively correlated with age (r=0.184, p=0.029). High IN was a predictor of COPD hospitalizations (HR 2.3 [95% CI 1.1–5.1] (p=0.029)) but not of less severe exacerbations (p=0.334).


          IN was not associated with any clinical variables, but it correlated with age. High IN proved to be an independent predictor of admissions.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Plausible projections of future mortality and disability are a useful aid in decisions on priorities for health research, capital investment, and training. Rates and patterns of ill health are determined by factors such as socioeconomic development, educational attainment, technological developments, and their dispersion among populations, as well as exposure to hazards such as tobacco. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD), we developed three scenarios of future mortality and disability for different age-sex groups, causes, and regions. We used the most important disease and injury trends since 1950 in nine cause-of-death clusters. Regression equations for mortality rates for each cluster by region were developed from gross domestic product per person (in international dollars), average number of years of education, time (in years, as a surrogate for technological change), and smoking intensity, which shows the cumulative effects based on data for 47 countries in 1950-90. Optimistic, pessimistic, and baseline projections of the independent variables were made. We related mortality from detailed causes to mortality from a cause cluster to project more detailed causes. Based on projected numbers of deaths by cause, years of life lived with disability (YLDs) were projected from different relation models of YLDs to years of life lost (YLLs). Population projections were prepared from World Bank projections of fertility and the projected mortality rates. Life expectancy at birth for women was projected to increase in all three scenarios; in established market economies to about 90 years by 2020. Far smaller gains in male life expectancy were projected than in females; in formerly socialist economies of Europe, male life expectancy may not increase at all. Worldwide mortality from communicable maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders was expected to decline in the baseline scenario from 17.2 million deaths in 1990 to 10.3 million in 2020. We projected that non-communicable disease mortality will increase from 28.1 million deaths in 1990 to 49.7 million in 2020. Deaths from injury may increase from 5.1 million to 8.4 million. Leading causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) predicted by the baseline model were (in descending order): ischaemic heart disease, unipolar major depression, road-traffic accidents, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, war injuries, diarrhoeal diseases, and HIV. Tobacco-attributable mortality is projected to increase from 3.0 million deaths in 1990 to 8.4 million deaths in 2020. Health trends in the next 25 years will be determined mainly by the ageing of the world's population, the decline in age-specific mortality rates from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders, the spread of HIV, and the increase in tobacco-related mortality and disability. Projections, by their nature, are highly uncertain, but we found some robust results with implications for health policy.
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            The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.
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              Self management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Self management interventions help patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acquire and practise the skills they need to carry out disease-specific medical regimens, guide changes in health behaviour and provide emotional support to enable patients to control their disease. Since the first update of this review in 2007, several studies have been published. The results of the second update are reported here.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                27 October 2020
                : 15
                : 2663-2671
                [1 ]Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Servicio de Neumología, Universidad de Cantabria , Santander, Spain
                [2 ]Universidad de Cantabria , Santander, Spain
                [3 ]Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Servicio de Neumología , Santander, Spain
                [4 ]Servicio Cántabro de Salud , Santander, Spain
                [5 ]Hospital Universitario Lucus Augusti, Servicio de Neumología, Grupo C039 Biodiscovery HULA-USC, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS) , Santander, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Carlos Antonio Amado Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla , Avenida Valdecilla SN, Santander39001, Cantabria, Spain Email
                © 2020 Amado et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 15, References: 25, Pages: 9
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, education, copd exacerbation


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