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      Water-solid surface contact electrification and its use for harvesting liquid-wave energy.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Toward large-scale energy harvesting by a nanoparticle-enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator.

          This article describes a simple, cost-effective, and scalable approach to fabricate a triboelectric nanogenerator (NG) with ultrahigh electric output. Triggered by commonly available ambient mechanical energy such as human footfalls, a NG with size smaller than a human palm can generate maximum short-circuit current of 2 mA, delivering instantaneous power output of 1.2 W to external load. The power output corresponds to an area power density of 313 W/m(2) and a volume power density of 54,268 W/m(3) at an open-circuit voltage of ~1200 V. An energy conversion efficiency of 14.9% has been achieved. The power was capable of instantaneously lighting up as many as 600 multicolor commercial LED bulbs. The record high power output for the NG is attributed to optimized structure, proper materials selection and nanoscale surface modification. This work demonstrated the practicability of using NG to harvest large-scale mechanical energy, such as footsteps, rolling wheels, wind power, and ocean waves.
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            The mosaic of surface charge in contact electrification.

            When dielectric materials are brought into contact and then separated, they develop static electricity. For centuries, it has been assumed that such contact charging derives from the spatially homogeneous material properties (along the material's surface) and that within a given pair of materials, one charges uniformly positively and the other negatively. We demonstrate that this picture of contact charging is incorrect. Whereas each contact-electrified piece develops a net charge of either positive or negative polarity, each surface supports a random "mosaic" of oppositely charged regions of nanoscopic dimensions. These mosaics of surface charge have the same topological characteristics for different types of electrified dielectrics and accommodate significantly more charge per unit area than previously thought.
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              Triboelectric-generator-driven pulse electrodeposition for micropatterning.

              By converting ambient energy into electricity, energy harvesting is capable of at least offsetting, or even replacing, the reliance of small portable electronics on traditional power supplies, such as batteries. Here we demonstrate a novel and simple generator with extremely low cost for efficiently harvesting mechanical energy that is typically present in the form of vibrations and random displacements/deformation. Owing to the coupling of contact charging and electrostatic induction, electric generation was achieved with a cycled process of contact and separation between two polymer films. A detailed theory is developed for understanding the proposed mechanism. The instantaneous electric power density reached as high as 31.2 mW/cm(3) at a maximum open circuit voltage of 110 V. Furthermore, the generator was successfully used without electric storage as a direct power source for pulse electrodeposition (PED) of micro/nanocrystalline silver structure. The cathodic current efficiency reached up to 86.6%. Not only does this work present a new type of generator that is featured by simple fabrication, large electric output, excellent robustness, and extremely low cost, but also extends the application of energy-harvesting technology to the field of electrochemistry with further utilizations including, but not limited to, pollutant degradation, corrosion protection, and water splitting.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
                Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)
                Wiley-Blackwell
                1521-3773
                1433-7851
                Nov 25 2013
                : 52
                : 48
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (USA).
                Article
                10.1002/anie.201307249
                24123530

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