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      Pharmacokinetic-Based Drug–Drug Interactions with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibitors: A Review

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          Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors are important treatment options for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), associated with ALK gene rearrangement. Patients with ALK gene rearrangement show sensitivity to and benefit clinically from treatment with ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs). To date, crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib, lorlatinib, and entrectinib have received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration and/or the European Medicines Agency for use during the treatment of ALK-gene-rearrangement forms of NSCLC. Although the oral route of administration is convenient and results in good compliance among patients, oral administration can be affected by many factors, such as food, intragastric pH, cytochrome P450 enzymes, transporters, and p-glycoprotein. These factors can result in increased risks for serious adverse events or can lead to reduced therapeutic effects of ALK-TKIs. This review characterizes and summarizes the pharmacokinetic parameters and drug–-drug interactions associated with ALK-TKIs to provide specific recommendations for oncologists and clinical pharmacists when prescribing ALK-TKIs.

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          Most cited references 59

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          EGFR mutations and lung cancer.

          Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane protein with cytoplasmic kinase activity that transduces important growth factor signaling from the extracellular milieu to the cell. Given that more than 60% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) express EGFR, EGFR has become an important therapeutic target for the treatment of these tumors. Inhibitors that target the kinase domain of EGFR have been developed and are clinically active. More importantly, such tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are especially effective in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene. More recent trials have suggested that for advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutant tumors, initial therapy with a TKI instead of chemotherapy may be the best choice of treatment. Therefore, mutation testing is mandatory to identify these patients, given that selection based only on clinico-pathologic characteristics is inadequate. We review the role of EGFR mutations in the diagnosis and management of NSCLC.
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            Pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustment in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

            The liver plays a central role in the pharmacokinetics of the majority of drugs. Liver dysfunction may not only reduce the blood/plasma clearance of drugs eliminated by hepatic metabolism or biliary excretion, it can also affect plasma protein binding, which in turn could influence the processes of distribution and elimination. Portal-systemic shunting, which is common in advanced liver cirrhosis, may substantially decrease the presystemic elimination (i.e., first-pass effect) of high extraction drugs following their oral administration, thus leading to a significant increase in the extent of absorption. Chronic liver diseases are associated with variable and non-uniform reductions in drug-metabolizing activities. For example, the activity of the various CYP450 enzymes seems to be differentially affected in patients with cirrhosis. Glucuronidation is often considered to be affected to a lesser extent than CYP450-mediated reactions in mild to moderate cirrhosis but can also be substantially impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Patients with advanced cirrhosis often have impaired renal function and dose adjustment may, therefore, also be necessary for drugs eliminated by renal exctretion. In addition, patients with liver cirrhosis are more sensitive to the central adverse effects of opioid analgesics and the renal adverse effects of NSAIDs. In contrast, a decreased therapeutic effect has been noted in cirrhotic patients with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and certain diuretics. Unfortunately, there is no simple endogenous marker to predict hepatic function with respect to the elimination capacity of specific drugs. Several quantitative liver tests that measure the elimination of marker substrates such as galactose, sorbitol, antipyrine, caffeine, erythromycin, and midazolam, have been developed and evaluated, but no single test has gained widespread clinical use to adjust dosage regimens for drugs in patients with hepatic dysfunction. The semi-quantitative Child-Pugh score is frequently used to assess the severity of liver function impairment, but only offers the clinician rough guidance for dosage adjustment because it lacks the sensitivity to quantitate the specific ability of the liver to metabolize individual drugs. The recommendations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) to study the effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of drugs under development is clearly aimed at generating, if possible, specific dosage recommendations for patients with hepatic dysfunction. However, the limitations of the Child-Pugh score are acknowledged, and further research is needed to develop more sensitive liver function tests to guide drug dosage adjustment in patients with hepatic dysfunction.
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              Changes in plasma protein binding have little clinical relevance.


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                30 April 2020
                : 14
                : 1663-1681
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Third Hospital of Mianyang (Sichuan Mental Health Center) , Mianyang 621000, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University , Chongqing 400037, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jisheng Wang; Dehua Zhao Email wangjishengyaoshi@163.com; zhaodehua1000@163.com
                © 2020 Zhao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 8, References: 84, Pages: 19

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                pk, drug–drug interactions, nsclc, alk, tkis


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