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Advanced Left Atrial Remodeling and Appendage Contractile Dysfunction in Women Than in Men Among the Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Potential Mechanism for Stroke

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      The risk of stroke imposed by atrial fibrillation ( AF) is significantly greater in women than men; however, the mechanism remains elusive. We hypothesized that left atrial ( LA) remodeling and poor contractile function of LA appendage ( LAA) would be more predominant in women than men among AF patients.

      Methods and Results

      A total of 579 AF patients (216 women vs age‐, AF type–, and incidences of heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and vascular disease–matched 363 men, 61.3±10.2 years old, 70.1% paroxysmal AF) who underwent AF catheter ablation were included. Sex differences in LA volume index ( LAVI) and LAA emptying flow velocity ( FV) were analyzed in risk factor 0, 1, and ≥2 groups, according to their CHA 2 DS 2VASc scores beyond sex category. LAAFV was more significantly reduced in women with risk factor ≥2 than in men of the same risk group ( P=0.022). Women showed greater LAVI than their male counterparts in the risk factor ≥2 group ( P<0.001). The majority of female patients with a history of stroke had a large LAVI and low LAAFV ( P<0.001); however, no such distribution was observed in men ( P=0.596). LA volume index (odds ratio [ OR], 1.038; 95% CI, 1.003–1.075, P=0.035) or LAAFV ( OR, 0.976; 95% CI, 0.952–0.999; P=0.047) was significantly associated with a history of stroke in women.


      More‐extensive LA remodeling and deterioration in LAA function were noted in women than in men with high calculated risk of stroke in AF.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 31

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            Author and article information

            [ 1 ]Yonsei University Health System SeoulKorea
            Author notes
            [* ] Correspondence to: Hui‐Nam Pak, MD, PhD or Chi Young Shim, MD, PhD, 50 Yonsei‐ro, Seodaemun‐gu, Seoul, Korea 120‐752. E‐mails: hnpak@ ; cysprs@

            Dr Yu and Dr Lee contributed equally to this work.

            J Am Heart Assoc
            J Am Heart Assoc
            Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
            John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
            11 July 2016
            July 2016
            : 5
            : 7 ( doiID: 10.1002/jah3.2016.5.issue-7 )
            27402232 5015374 10.1161/JAHA.116.003361 JAH31639
            © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

            This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

            Pages: 9
            Funded by: Korea Health 21 R&D Project
            Award ID: A085136
            Funded by: Ministry of Health and Welfare
            Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea
            Award ID: NRF‐2013R1A2A2A01014634
            Funded by: Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning
            Original Research
            Original Research
            Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
            Custom metadata
            July 2016
            Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.4 mode:remove_FC converted:01.09.2016

            Cardiovascular Medicine

            atrial fibrillation, stroke, sex, remodeling


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