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      Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Two Doses of Growth Hormone in Short Japanese Children Born Small for Gestational Age

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          Background/Aims: To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of two doses (33 and 67 µg/kg/day) of growth hormone (GH) in short Japanese children born small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: 96 children born SGA (age 3 to <8 years) were randomized to GH at 33 or 67 µg/kg/day for 104 weeks, or to an untreated control (UC) group for 52 weeks. After 52 weeks, the UC group was randomized to GH at a dose of 33 or 67 µg/kg/day for a 156-week extension study. Initial treatment groups continued unchanged for the extension phase. Efficacy was evaluated by change in height SDS for chronological age from baseline to 208/260 weeks. Results: After 208 weeks, change in height SDS from baseline (least square (LS) means (SE)) was 1.01 (0.47) and 1.99 (0.67) in the UC 33 and UC 67 µg/kg/day groups, respectively. After 260 weeks, change in height SDS from baseline was 1.22 (0.51) and 2.01 (0.64) in the 33 and 67 µg/kg/day groups, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in the groups receiving 67 µg/kg/day but largely remained within normal limits (–2 to +2 SDS). Conclusion: Long-term continuous GH treatment was well tolerated and effective in improving height SDS. Improvements were dose-dependent and significantly higher at 67 than 33 µg/kg/day.

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          Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial.

          The GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment with either 3 IU (group A) or 6 IU (group B) GH/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg.d, respectively). The mean (+/-SD) birth length was -3.6 (1.4), the age at the start of the study was 8.1 (1.9) yr, and the height SD score (SDS) at the start of the study -3.0 (0.7). Seventeen of the 54 children were partially GH deficient (stimulated GH peak, 10-20 mU/liter). Fifteen non-GH-treated, non-GH-deficient, short children born SGA, with similar inclusion criteria, served as controls [mean (+/-SD) birth length, -3.3 (1.2); age at start, 7.8 (1.7) yr; height SDS at start, -2.6 (0.5)]. GH treatment resulted in an AH above -2 SDS in 85% of the children after a mean (+/-SD) GH treatment period of 7.8 (1.7) yr. The mean (SD) AH SDS was -1.1 (0.7) for group A and -0.9 (0.8) for group B, resulting from a mean (+/-SD) gain in height SDS of 1.8 (0.7) for group A and 2.1 (0.8) for group B. No significant differences between groups A and B were found for AH SDS (mean difference, 0.3 SDS; 95% confidence interval, -0.2, 0.6; P > 0.2) and gain in height SDS (mean difference, 0.3 SDS; 95% confidence interval, -0.1, 0.7; P > 0.1). When corrected for target height, the mean corrected AH SDS was -0.2 (0.8) for group A and -0.4 (0.9) for group B. The mean (+/-SD) AH SDS of the control group [-2.3 (0.7)] was significantly lower than that of the GH-treated group (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated the following predictive variables for AH SDS: target height SDS, height SDS, and chronological age minus bone age (years) at the start of the study. GH dose had no significant effect. In conclusion, long-term continuous GH treatment in short children born SGA without signs of persistent catch-up growth leads to a normalization of AH, even with a GH dose of 3 IU/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 mg/kg.d).
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            Reduced final height and indications for insulin resistance in 20 year olds born small for gestational age: regional cohort study.

            To investigate whether the association between low birth weight and increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypertension in middle age is apparent by the age of 20 in people born small for gestational age. Regional cohort study. Maternity registry, Haguenau, France. 236 full term singleton babies born small for gestational age (birth weight or length, or both, below third centile) during 1971-8 and 281 with normal birth weight (between 25th and 75th centile). All subjects were contacted and evaluated at a mean (SD) age of 20.6 (2.1) years. Adult height; concentrations of glucose, insulin, and proinsulin during an oral glucose tolerance test; lipid and fibrinogen concentrations; and blood pressure. After sex and target height were adjusted for, subjects who had been born small for gestational age were significantly shorter at age 20 than those with a normal birth weight (men 4.5 cm shorter (95% confidence interval 6.0 to 3.0 cm); women 3.94 cm shorter (5.2 to 2.7 cm)). After sex and body mass index were adjusted for, mean plasma glucose concentration 30 minutes after a glucose load, fasting insulin concentration (in women), and insulin and proinsulin concentrations 30 and 120 minutes after a glucose load were significantly higher in subjects who had been born small for gestational age than in those with a normal birth weight. Mean lipid and fibrinogen concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the two groups. Intrauterine growth retardation has long term consequences such as reduced final height Raised insulin and proinsulin concentrations are present in young adults born small for gestational age and could be markers of early changes in insulin sensitivity.
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              Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age: 5-Year Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose-Response Trial

               T. Sas (1999)

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                December 2011
                29 November 2011
                : 76
                : 6
                : 411-418
                aTanaka Growth Clinic, and bNational Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, cOsaka Kosei Nenkin Hospital, Osaka, dNagoya City University, Nagoya, eNakanoshima Clinic, Tokyo, and fAsahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan; gNovo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark
                Author notes
                *Anne-Marie Kappelgaard, Global Marketing GHT, Novo Nordisk A/S, Vandtårnsvej 108–110, DK–2860 Søborg (Denmark), Tel. +45 3079 1650, E-Mail amk@novonordisk.com
                334152 Horm Res Paediatr 2011;76:411–418
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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