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      Pathology and Protein Changes of the Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Arterial Draining Vein Under Sustained High Vascular Pressure

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          Abstract

          Object: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is the most common spinal vascular shunt lesion. Although pathological changes in the SDAVF draining vein (SDAVF-DV) have been elucidated, protein changes remain enigmatic. We investigated the pathology and protein changes in the SDAVF-DV under sustained high vascular pressure.

          Methods: Three SDAVF-DV samples were compared with superficial temporal artery (STA) and superficial temporal vein (STV) samples as controls. Vascular structure was revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson staining; and cell distribution, extracellular matrix, and inflammation infiltration were observed by immunohistochemistry. Label-free quantitative proteomics was performed, and the peptide mixture was fractionated and analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was performed using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks.

          Results: H&E and Masson staining showed an artery-like structure of the SDAVF-DV. Immunostaining showed that vWF+ cells were not continuous in the SDAVF-DV. Although α-SMA+ and AT1+ cells were more abundant in the STV than in the SDAVF-DV, piezo-1 expression was lower in the SDAVF-DV. The SDAVF-DV showed different distributions of elastin, COL I, and COL III. COL IV and COL VI were decreased in the SDAVF-DV, while CD45+ cells and COX-1 were increased compared with those in the controls. No differences in CD68 expression and COX-2 staining were observed between the SDAVF-DV and controls. Compared with the STA, 95 proteins were upregulated and 303 proteins were downregulated in the SDAVF-DV. The most differential GO terms in each category were the adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, U6 snRNP, and SH3 domain binding. The most differentially expressed KEGG protein pathway was focal adhesion. Compared with the STV, the SDAVF-DV had 158 upregulated proteins and 362 downregulated proteins. The most differential GO terms in each category were lamellipodium assembly, U6 snRNP, and SH3 domain binding; and the most differentially expressed KEGG protein pathway was dilated cardiomyopathy. PPI analysis revealed PPIs among the top 300 proteins.

          Conclusions: The SDAVF-DV exhibits specific pathology and protein expression changes under sustained high vascular pressure. The results of the present study provide insights into the pathogenesis of SDAVF formation at the protein level as well as a scientific foundation for further exploration of the pathophysiological mechanism of the SDAVF.

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          Most cited references29

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          Less label, more free: approaches in label-free quantitative mass spectrometry.

          In this review we examine techniques, software, and statistical analyses used in label-free quantitative proteomics studies for area under the curve and spectral counting approaches. Recent advances in the field are discussed in an order that reflects a logical workflow design. Examples of studies that follow this design are presented to highlight the requirement for statistical assessment and further experiments to validate results from label-free quantitation. Limitations of label-free approaches are considered, label-free approaches are compared with labelling techniques, and forward-looking applications for label-free quantitative data are presented. We conclude that label-free quantitative proteomics is a reliable, versatile, and cost-effective alternative to labelled quantitation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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            Biology of intracranial aneurysms: role of inflammation.

            Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) linger as a potentially devastating clinical problem. Despite intense investigation, our understanding of the mechanisms leading to aneurysm development, progression and rupture remain incompletely defined. An accumulating body of evidence implicates inflammation as a critical contributor to aneurysm pathogenesis. Intracranial aneurysm formation and progression appear to result from endothelial dysfunction, a mounting inflammatory response, and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation producing a pro-inflammatory phenotype. A later final common pathway appears to involve apoptosis of cellular constituents of the vessel wall. These changes result in degradation of the integrity of the vascular wall leading to aneurysmal dilation, progression and eventual rupture in certain aneurysms. Various aspects of the inflammatory response have been investigated as contributors to IA pathogenesis including leukocytes, complement, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and other humoral mediators. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of IA compared with control arteries has prominently featured differential expression of genes involved with immune response/inflammation. Preliminary data suggest that therapies targeting the inflammatory response may have efficacy in the future treatment of IA. Further investigation, however, is necessary to elucidate the precise role of inflammation in IA pathogenesis, which can be exploited to improve the prognosis of patients harboring IA.
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              Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

              Spinal dural arteriovenous (AV) fistulas are the most commonly encountered vascular malformation of the spinal cord and a treatable cause for progressive para- or tetraplegia. They most commonly affect elderly men and are classically found in the thoracolumbar region. The AV shunt is located inside the dura mater close to the spinal nerve root where the arterial blood from a radiculomeningeal artery enters a radicular vein. The increase in spinal venous pressure leads to decreased drainage of normal spinal veins, venous congestion, and the clinical findings of progressive myelopathy. On MR imaging, the combination of cord edema, perimedullary dilated vessels, and cord enhancement is characteristic. Therapy has to be aimed at occluding the shunting zone, either by superselective embolization with a liquid embolic agent or by a neurosurgical approach. Following occlusion of the fistula, the progression of the disease can be stopped and improvement of symptoms is typically observed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2295
                24 September 2021
                2021
                : 12
                : 713355
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [2] 2Neurosurgical Institute of Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [3] 3Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Neurosurgery , Shanghai, China
                [4] 4Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Restoration and Neural Regeneration , Shanghai, China
                [5] 5Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [6] 6Department of Neurology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Osama O. Zaidat, Northeast Ohio Medical University, United States

                Reviewed by: Hosam Al-Jehani, McGill University, Canada; Gefei Wang, Jinling Hospital, China

                *Correspondence: Wei Zhu, drzhuwei@ 123456fudan.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Endovascular and Interventional Neurology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Article
                10.3389/fneur.2021.713355
                8498570
                34630287
                f79fb642-dc6b-47ac-a676-bcd6b4afb9f6
                Copyright © 2021 Liu, Shi, Li, Liu, Zhou, Song, Zhu and An.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 25 May 2021
                : 17 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 12, Words: 4939
                Categories
                Neurology
                Original Research

                Neurology
                sdavf draining vein,superficial temporal artery,superficial temporal vein,pathology,proteomics

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