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      Prevalence of quadriceps muscle weakness in patients with COPD and its association with disease severity

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          COPD presents with an array of extra-pulmonary symptoms of which skeletal muscle dysfunction, particularly of the quadriceps, is well recognized. This contributes to impaired quality of life and increased health care utilization. Work on the quadriceps originated from the observation that a good proportion of COPD patients stop exercise due to the feeling of leg fatigue rather than breathlessness. This study was carried out with the aim of finding the prevalence of quadriceps weakness in a population set and correlate it with severity of COPD.

          Methodology

          This cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 subjects suffering from COPD aged 45 years or above. COPD severity in the subjects was graded based on the GOLD staging system. A digital hand held dynamometer (HHD) was used to measure quadriceps muscle strength. Descriptive statistics were done, and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA analysis was used for expressing the results.

          Results

          Ninety two percent of subjects were suffering from quadriceps muscle weakness. Quadriceps weakness was present in significantly high proportions even in those suffering from mild disease and belonging to a younger age group. The mean quadriceps muscle force value decreased with disease severity and this relation was found to be significant ( P<0.01).

          Conclusion

          Majority of the COPD patients were found to be suffering from quadriceps weakness, which was also present in significant proportions in subjects belonging to younger age groups and suffering from mild disease. These findings indicate that onset of muscle weakness in COPD may precede the onset of symptoms. These findings suggest need for early remedial measure to prevent occurrence of associated systemic diseases.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Characteristics of physical activities in daily life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Quantification of physical activities in daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increasing clinical interest. However, detailed comparison with healthy subjects is not available. Furthermore, it is unknown whether time spent actively during daily life is related to lung function, muscle force, or maximal and functional exercise capacity. We assessed physical activities and movement intensity with the DynaPort activity monitor in 50 patients (age 64 +/- 7 years; FEV1 43 +/- 18% predicted) and 25 healthy elderly individuals (age 66 +/- 5 years). Patients showed lower walking time (44 +/- 26 vs. 81 +/- 26 minutes/day), standing time (191 +/- 99 vs. 295 +/- 109 minutes/day), and movement intensity during walking (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.5 m/second2; p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher sitting time (374 +/- 139 vs. 306 +/- 108 minutes/day; p = 0.04) and lying time (87 +/- 97 vs. 29 +/- 33 minutes/day; p = 0.004). Walking time was highly correlated with the 6-minute walking test (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) and more modestly to maximal exercise capacity, lung function, and muscle force (0.28 < r < 0.64, p < 0.05). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are markedly inactive in daily life. Functional exercise capacity is the strongest correlate of physical activities in daily life.
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            Physical activity in patients with COPD.

            The present study aimed to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to: 1) identify the disease stage at which physical activity becomes limited; 2) investigate the relationship of clinical characteristics with physical activity; 3) evaluate the predictive power of clinical characteristics identifying very inactive patients; and 4) analyse the reliability of physical activity measurements. In total, 163 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I-IV; BODE (body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity) index score 0-10) and 29 patients with chronic bronchitis (normal spirometry; former GOLD stage 0) wore activity monitors that recorded steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity, and physical activity levels for 5 days (3 weekdays plus Saturday and Sunday). Compared with patients with chronic bronchitis, steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity and physical activity levels were reduced from GOLD stage II/BODE score 1, GOLD stage III/BODE score 3/4 and from GOLD stage III/BODE score 1, respectively. Reliability of physical activity measurements improved with the number of measured days and with higher GOLD stages. Moderate relationships were observed between clinical characteristics and physical activity. GOLD stages III and IV best predicted very inactive patients. Physical activity is reduced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II/ body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity score 1. Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease only incompletely reflect their physical activity.
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              Peripheral muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Peripheral muscle weakness is commonly found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may play a role in reducing exercise capacity. The purposes of this study were to evaluate, in patients with COPD: (1) the relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA), (2) the distribution of peripheral muscle weakness, and (3) the relationship between muscle strength and the severity of lung disease. Thirty-four patients with COPD and 16 normal subjects of similar age and body mass index were evaluated. Compared with normal subjects, the strength of three muscle groups (p < 0.05) and the right thigh muscle CSA, evaluated by computed tomography (83.4 +/- 16.4 versus 109.6 +/- 15.6 cm2, p < 0.0001), were reduced in COPD. The quadriceps strength/thigh muscle CSA ratio was similar for the two groups. The reduction in quadriceps strength was proportionally greater than that of the shoulder girdle muscles (p < 0.05). Similar observations were made whether or not patients had been exposed to systemic corticosteroids in the 6-mo period preceding the study, although there was a tendency for the quadriceps strength/thigh muscle CSA ratio to be lower in patients who had received corticosteroids. In COPD, quadriceps strength and muscle CSA correlated positively with the FEV1 expressed in percentage of predicted value (r = 0.55 and r = 0. 66, respectively, p < 0.0005). In summary, the strength/muscle cross-sectional area ratio was not different between the two groups, suggesting that weakness in COPD is due to muscle atrophy. In COPD, the distribution of peripheral muscle weakness and the correlation between quadriceps strength and the degree of airflow obstruction suggests that chronic inactivity and muscle deconditioning are important factors in the loss in muscle mass and strength.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                01 September 2015
                : 10
                : 1727-1735
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
                [3 ]Department of Physiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sidharth Kharbanda, Kasturba Medical College, Mangaluru, Manipal University, Light HouseHill Road, Mangaluru, Karnataka 575001, India, Tel +91 95 9130 6718, Email sidk25@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                copd-10-1727
                10.2147/COPD.S87791
                4562732
                © 2015 Kharbanda et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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