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      BGGE: A New Package for Genomic-Enabled Prediction Incorporating Genotype × Environment Interaction Models


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          One of the major issues in plant breeding is the occurrence of genotype × environment (GE) interaction. Several models have been created to understand this phenomenon and explore it. In the genomic era, several models were employed to improve selection by using markers and account for GE interaction simultaneously. Some of these models use special genetic covariance matrices. In addition, the scale of multi-environment trials is getting larger, and this increases the computational challenges. In this context, we propose an R package that, in general, allows building GE genomic covariance matrices and fitting linear mixed models, in particular, to a few genomic GE models. Here we propose two functions: one to prepare the genomic kernels accounting for the genomic GE and another to perform genomic prediction using a Bayesian linear mixed model. A specific treatment is given for sparse covariance matrices, in particular, to block diagonal matrices that are present in some GE models in order to decrease the computational demand. In empirical comparisons with Bayesian Genomic Linear Regression (BGLR), accuracies and the mean squared error were similar; however, the computational time was up to five times lower than when using the classic approach. Bayesian Genomic Genotype × Environment Interaction (BGGE) is a fast, efficient option for creating genomic GE kernels and making genomic predictions.

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          Priors in whole-genome regression: the bayesian alphabet returns.

          Whole-genome enabled prediction of complex traits has received enormous attention in animal and plant breeding and is making inroads into human and even Drosophila genetics. The term "Bayesian alphabet" denotes a growing number of letters of the alphabet used to denote various Bayesian linear regressions that differ in the priors adopted, while sharing the same sampling model. We explore the role of the prior distribution in whole-genome regression models for dissecting complex traits in what is now a standard situation with genomic data where the number of unknown parameters (p) typically exceeds sample size (n). Members of the alphabet aim to confront this overparameterization in various manners, but it is shown here that the prior is always influential, unless n ≫ p. This happens because parameters are not likelihood identified, so Bayesian learning is imperfect. Since inferences are not devoid of the influence of the prior, claims about genetic architecture from these methods should be taken with caution. However, all such procedures may deliver reasonable predictions of complex traits, provided that some parameters ("tuning knobs") are assessed via a properly conducted cross-validation. It is concluded that members of the alphabet have a room in whole-genome prediction of phenotypes, but have somewhat doubtful inferential value, at least when sample size is such that n ≪ p.
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            Reproducing kernel hilbert spaces regression methods for genomic assisted prediction of quantitative traits.

            Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regression procedures for prediction of total genetic value for quantitative traits, which make use of phenotypic and genomic data simultaneously, are discussed from a theoretical perspective. It is argued that a nonparametric treatment may be needed for capturing the multiple and complex interactions potentially arising in whole-genome models, i.e., those based on thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After a review of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regression, it is shown that the statistical specification admits a standard mixed-effects linear model representation, with smoothing parameters treated as variance components. Models for capturing different forms of interaction, e.g., chromosome-specific, are presented. Implementations can be carried out using software for likelihood-based or Bayesian inference.
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              Semi-parametric genomic-enabled prediction of genetic values using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces methods.

              Prediction of genetic values is a central problem in quantitative genetics. Over many decades, such predictions have been successfully accomplished using information on phenotypic records and family structure usually represented with a pedigree. Dense molecular markers are now available in the genome of humans, plants and animals, and this information can be used to enhance the prediction of genetic values. However, the incorporation of dense molecular marker data into models poses many statistical and computational challenges, such as how models can cope with the genetic complexity of multi-factorial traits and with the curse of dimensionality that arises when the number of markers exceeds the number of data points. Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regressions can be used to address some of these challenges. The methodology allows regressions on almost any type of prediction sets (covariates, graphs, strings, images, etc.) and has important computational advantages relative to many parametric approaches. Moreover, some parametric models appear as special cases. This article provides an overview of the methodology, a discussion of the problem of kernel choice with a focus on genetic applications, algorithms for kernel selection and an assessment of the proposed methods using a collection of 599 wheat lines evaluated for grain yield in four mega environments.

                Author and article information

                G3 (Bethesda)
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                26 July 2018
                September 2018
                : 8
                : 9
                : 3039-3047
                [* ]Department of Genetics, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
                []Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México
                []Biometrics and Statistics Unit, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, México DF, México
                [§ ]Facultad de Telemática, Universidad de Colima, Colima, Colima, 28040, México,
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author. Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México; E-mail: jaicueva@ 123456uqroo.edu.mx
                Author information
                Copyright © 2018 Granato et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 17 May 2018
                : 23 July 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 14, References: 36, Pages: 9
                Genomic Selection

                ge: genotype × environment (ge),bgge: bayesian genomic genotype × environment interaction,gs: genomic selection,bglr: bayesian genomic linear regression,genpred,shared data resources


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