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      Growth of desert varnish on petroglyphs from Jubbah and Shuwaymis, Ha’il region, Saudi Arabia

      1 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3
      The Holocene
      SAGE Publications

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          The manganese- and iron-oxide mineralogy of desert varnish

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            A Record of Holocene Climate Change from Lake Geochemical Analyses in Southeastern Arabia

            Lacustrine sediments from southeastern Arabia reveal variations in lake level corresponding to changes in the strength and duration of Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) summer rainfall and winter cyclonic rainfall. The late glacial/Holocene transition of the region was characterised by the development of mega-linear dunes. These dunes became stabilised and vegetated during the early Holocene and interdunal lakes formed in response to the incursion of the IOM at approximately 8500 cal yr BP with the development of C3 dominated savanna grasslands. The IOM weakened ca. 6000 cal yr BP with the onset of regional aridity, aeolian sedimentation and dune reactivation and accretion. Despite this reduction in precipitation, the lake was maintained by winter dominated rainfall. There was a shift to drier adapted C4 grasslands across the dune field. Lake sediment geochemical analyses record precipitation minima at 8200, 5000 and 4200 cal yr BP that coincide with Bond events in the North Atlantic. A number of these events correspond with changes in cultural periods, suggesting that climate was a key mechanism affecting human occupation and exploitation of this region.
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              CHEMICAL DATA ON DESERT VARNISH

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                The Holocene
                The Holocene
                SAGE Publications
                0959-6836
                1477-0911
                June 12 2018
                September 2018
                June 12 2018
                September 2018
                : 28
                : 9
                : 1495-1511
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany
                [2 ]Geology & Geophysics Department, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, USA
                Article
                10.1177/0959683618777075
                f8fe9fe2-c9ee-41fa-afd9-5ab75a718ecd
                © 2018

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license


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