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      A new species of the genus Euxaldar Fennah, 1978 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae) from China and revision on the molecular phylogeny of the family

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          Abstract

          A new species Euxaldar daweishanensis Yang, Chang & Chen, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from southwestern China. The female genitalia of the genus Euxaldar is described and presented for the first time. A checklist and key to the known species of the genus are provided. A revised molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Issidae based on combined partial sequences of 18S, 28S, COI, and Cytb is provided using both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses.

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          Most cited references 26

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          PartitionFinder 2: New Methods for Selecting Partitioned Models of Evolution for Molecular and Morphological Phylogenetic Analyses

          PartitionFinder 2 is a program for automatically selecting best-fit partitioning schemes and models of evolution for phylogenetic analyses. PartitionFinder 2 is substantially faster and more efficient than version 1, and incorporates many new methods and features. These include the ability to analyze morphological datasets, new methods to analyze genome-scale datasets, new output formats to facilitate interoperability with downstream software, and many new models of molecular evolution. PartitionFinder 2 is freely available under an open source license and works on Windows, OSX, and Linux operating systems. It can be downloaded from www.robertlanfear.com/partitionfinder. The source code is available at https://github.com/brettc/partitionfinder.
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            From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the forewing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)

            Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results. When the interpretation of the origin of vein branches is render difficult, a three-step strategy for pattern recognition of the vein is proposed based on two principles: (1) vein forks are more informative than topology of the vein branches: a search for homologous areas, the nodal cells in particular, must first guide the recognition rather the number of branches of a vein, and (2) minimum of ad hoc evolutionary events should be invoked in the understanding of a modified vein pattern. Examples of some conflicting interpretations of venation patterns in planthoppers are discussed within different families for both extant and extinct taxa. For the first time, the concept of brachypterism is defined in a non-relative way independently from other structures, and the new one of hyperpterism is proposed; a reporting system is proposed for each of them.
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              Robustness of ancestral state estimates: evolution of life history strategy in ichneumonoid parasitoids.

              We test hypotheses for the evolution of a life history trait among a group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea), namely, the transition among koinobiont parasitoids (parasitoids whose hosts continue development after oviposition) between attacking exposed hosts and attacking hosts that are concealed within plant tissue. Using a range of phylogeny estimates based on 28S rDNA sequences, we use maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the ancestral life history traits for the main clades in which both traits occur (using the programs MacClade and Discrete, respectively). We also assess the robustness of these estimates; for MP, we use step matrices in PAUP* to find the minimum weight necessary to reverse estimates or make them ambiguous, and for ML, we measure the differences in likelihood after fixing the ancestral nodes at the alternative states. We also measure the robustness of the MP ancestral state estimate against uncertainties in the phylogeny estimate, manipulating the most-parsimonious tree in MacClade to find the shortest suboptimal tree in which the ancestral state estimate is reversed or made ambiguous. Using these methods, we find strong evidence supporting two transitions among koinobiont Ichneumonoidea: (1) to attacking exposed hosts in a clade consisting of the Helconinae and related subfamilies, and (2) the reverse transition in a clade consisting of the Euphorinae and related subfamilies. In exploring different methods of analyzing variable-length DNA sequences, we found that direct optimization with POY gave some clearly erroneous results that had a profound effect on the overall phylogeny estimate. We also discuss relationships within the superfamily and expand the Mesostoinae to include all the gall-associated braconids that form the sister group of the Aphidiinae.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                01 March 2021
                : 1021
                : 19-35
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, China Guizhou University Guiyang China
                [2 ] The Provincial Special Key Laboratory for Development and Utilization of Insect Resources, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, Chinas Liupanshui Normal College Liupanshui China
                [3 ] College of Animal Science, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, China Guizhou University Guiyang China
                [4 ] Office of Academic Affairs, Liupanshui Normal College, Liupanshui, Guizhou, 55300, China Liupanshui Normal College Liupanshui China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Xiang-Sheng Chen ( chenxs3218@ 123456163.com )

                Academic editor: Mike Wilson

                Article
                35510
                10.3897/zookeys.1021.35510
                7940319
                Liang-Jing Yang, Zhi-Min Chang, Lin Yang, Xiang-Sheng Chen

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Issidae
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                China

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