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      The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids.

      Pharmacology & Therapeutics

      Animals, Anti-Infective Agents, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Anti-Ulcer Agents, Anticholesteremic Agents, Antidotes, Antirheumatic Agents, Cardiovascular Agents, Chelating Agents, Electron Transport, Enzyme Inhibitors, Flavonoids, biosynthesis, chemistry, toxicity, Free Radical Scavengers, Humans, Isomerism, Plant Physiological Phenomena, Wound Healing, drug effects

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          Flavonoids are plant pigments that are synthesised from phenylalanine, generally display marvelous colors known from flower petals, mostly emit brilliant fluorescence when they are excited by UV light, and are ubiquitous to green plant cells. The flavonoids are used by botanists for taxonomical classification. They regulate plant growth by inhibition of the exocytosis of the auxin indolyl acetic acid, as well as by induction of gene expression, and they influence other biological cells in numerous ways. Flavonoids inhibit or kill many bacterial strains, inhibit important viral enzymes, such as reverse transcriptase and protease, and destroy some pathogenic protozoans. Yet, their toxicity to animal cells is low. Flavonoids are major functional components of many herbal and insect preparations for medical use, e.g., propolis (bee's glue) and honey, which have been used since ancient times. The daily intake of flavonoids with normal food, especially fruit and vegetables, is 1-2 g. Modern authorised physicians are increasing their use of pure flavonoids to treat many important common diseases, due to their proven ability to inhibit specific enzymes, to simulate some hormones and neurotransmitters, and to scavenge free radicals.

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