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      Gender discrepancy in research activities during radiology residency


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          To investigate the presence of gender disparity in academic involvement during radiology residency and to identify and characterize any gender differences in perceived barriers for conducting research.


          An international call for participation in an online survey was promoted via social media and through multiple international and national radiological societies. A 35-question survey invited radiology trainees worldwide to answer questions regarding exposure and barriers to academic radiology during their training. Gender differences in response proportions were analyzed using either Fisher’s exact or chi-squared tests.


          Eight hundred fifty-eight participants (438 men, 420 women) from Europe (432), Asia (241), North and South America (144), Africa (37), and Oceania (4) completed the survey. Fewer women radiology residents were involved in research during residency (44.3%, 186/420 vs 59.4%, 260/438; p ≤ 0.0001) and had fewer published original articles (27.9%, 117/420 vs. 40.2%, 176/438; p = 0.001).

          Women were more likely to declare gender as a barrier to research (24.3%, 102/420 vs. 6.8%, 30/438; p < 0.0001) and lacked mentorship/support from faculty (65%, 273/420 vs. 55.7%, 244/438; p = 0.0055). Men were more likely to declare a lack of time (60.3%, 264/438 vs. 50.7%, 213/420; p = 0.0049) and lack of personal interest (21%, 92/438 vs. 13.6%, 57/420, p = 0.0041) in conducting research.


          Fewer women were involved in academic activities during radiology residency, resulting in fewer original published studies compared to their men counterparts. This is indicative of an inherent gender imbalance. Lack of mentorship reported by women radiologists was a main barrier to research.

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          Gender differences in time spent on parenting and domestic responsibilities by high-achieving young physician-researchers.

          Female physician-researchers do not achieve career success at the same rate as men. Differences in nonprofessional responsibilities may partially explain this gap.
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            Why do women choose or reject careers in academic medicine? A narrative review of empirical evidence.

            Women are under-represented in academic medicine. We reviewed the empirical evidence focusing on the reasons for women's choice or rejection of careers in academic medicine. Using a systematic search, we identified 52 studies published between 1985, and 2015. More than half had methodological limitations and most were from North America. Eight main themes were explored in these studies. There was consistent evidence for four of these themes: women are interested in teaching more than in research; participation in research can encourage women into academic medicine; women lack adequate mentors and role models; and women experience gender discrimination and bias. The evidence was conflicting on four themes: women are less interested in research than men; women lose commitment to research as their education and training progress; women are deterred from academic careers by financial considerations; and women are deterred by concerns about work-life balance. Inconsistency of findings across studies suggests significant opportunities to overcome barriers by providing a more enabling environment. We identified substantial gaps in the scientific literature that could form the focus of future research, including shifting the focus from individuals' career choices to the societal and organisational contexts and cultures within which those choices are made; extending the evidence base to include a wider range of countries and settings; and testing the efficacy of interventions.
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              Faculty perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in academic medicine.

              Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment are common in medical practice and may be even more prevalent in academic medicine. To examine the prevalence of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment among medical school faculty and the associations of gender-based discrimination with number of publications, career satisfaction, and perceptions of career advancement. A self-administered mailed questionnaire of U.S. medical school faculty that covered a broad range of topics relating to academic life. 24 randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 3332 full-time faculty, stratified by specialty, graduation cohort, and sex. Prevalence of self-reported experiences of discrimination and harassment, number of peer-reviewed publications, career satisfaction, and perception of career advancement. Female faculty were more than 2.5 times more likely than male faculty to perceive gender-based discrimination in the academic environment (P < 0.001). Among women, rates of reported discrimination ranged from 47% for the youngest faculty to 70% for the oldest faculty. Women who reported experiencing negative gender bias had similar productivity but lower career satisfaction scores than did other women (P< 0.001). About half of female faculty but few male faculty experienced some form of sexual harassment. These experiences were similarly prevalent across the institutions in the sample and in all regions of the United States. Female faculty who reported being sexually harassed perceived gender-specific bias in the academic environment more often than did other women (80% compared with 61 %) and more often reported experiencing gender bias in professional advancement (72% compared with 47%). Publications, career satisfaction, and professional confidence were not affected by sexual harassment, and self-assessed career advancement was only marginally lower for female faculty who had experienced sexual harassment (P = 0.06). Despite substantial increases in the number of female faculty, reports of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment remain common.

                Author and article information

                Insights Imaging
                Insights Imaging
                Insights into Imaging
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                21 December 2019
                21 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 10
                : 125
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1762 5517, GRID grid.10776.37, University of Palermo, ; Via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 3088, GRID grid.412510.3, Department ProMISE (Department of Health Promotion, Mother and Child Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties), , University Hospital of Palermo, ; Piazza delle Cliniche, 2, 90127 Palermo, Italy
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2173 743X, GRID grid.10988.38, University Beaujon Hospital, , University of Paris, ; Paris, France
                [4 ]GRID grid.419419.0, I.R.C.C.S. Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, ; Contrada Casazza, SS113, 98124 Messina, Italy
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0398 7066, GRID grid.415992.2, Radiology and Imaging Department, , Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, ; Liverpool, UK
                [6 ]Cardiovascular Program ICCC, IR, HSCiSP, IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1092 2592, GRID grid.8302.9, Radiology Department, , Ege University Faculty of Medicine, ; 35100 Izmir, Turkey
                [8 ]ICON Radiología e Imagen Diagnóstica, Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua Mexico
                [9 ]GRID grid.413678.f, Centro Médico ABC, ; 05330 Ciudad de México, CDMX, Mexico
                [10 ]Institue of Radiology, St. Luke’s Medical Center-Global City, Taguig, Philippines
                [11 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1766 8592, GRID grid.415923.8, MRI Department, , Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, ; Mumbai, India
                [12 ]GRID grid.476980.4, Radiology Department, , Cairo University Hospitals, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [13 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4688 8965, GRID grid.490894.8, Aswan Heart Center, ; Aswan, Aswan Governorate Egypt
                [14 ]Departamento de Diagnos/co por Imagenes, Fleni. Montañeses 2325, C1428AQK, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [15 ]GRID grid.420468.c, Department of Clinical Radiology, , Great Ormond Street Hospital, ; London, WC1N 3JH UK
                [16 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute for Child Health, ; London, WC1N 1EH UK
                [17 ]Medical School, Etugen University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
                [18 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0302 820X, GRID grid.412484.f, Department of Radiology, , Seoul National University Hospital, ; 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080 Republic of Korea
                [19 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 1241, GRID grid.414316.5, Christiana Care Health System, Diagnostic Radiology, ; 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road, Newark, DE 19718 USA
                [20 ]Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine, France
                [21 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0620 6317, GRID grid.462374.0, CRI, UMR 1149, Inserm and Université Paris Diderot, ; Paris, France
                Author information
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                : 29 July 2019
                : 24 September 2019
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Radiology & Imaging
                gender,residency,mentorship,training support
                Radiology & Imaging
                gender, residency, mentorship, training support


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