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      Protective effects of tiopronin against oxidative stress in severely burned patients

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          Tiopronin is an antioxidant. This study investigated the protective effect of tiopronin on oxidative stress in patients with severe burns.


          Patients aged between 16 and 65 years old with >30% body surface area burns admitted to our burn unit from July 2011 to September 2016 were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A treated with tiopronin (15 mg/kg. 24 hrs), group B with vitamin C (792 mg/kg. 24 hrs), the other group with standard treatment (group C). All 3 groups also received standard treatment. Blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the biochemical indexes of liver, kidney, and heart were determined before treatment and 24 and 48 hrs after treatment. Samples from 8 normal healthy adult volunteers were also measured. The resuscitation fluid volume requirement for the first 24 hrs was calculated for 3 groups.


          The serum levels of MDA and the biochemical indexes in severely burned patients were higher than those in healthy volunteers ( P<0.01). The serum SOD level of burn patients was lower ( P<0.01). After treatment, the levels of SOD increased, the levels of MDA decreased, and the biochemical indexes of heart, liver, and kidney improved; these changes were more obvious in group A and group B compared to group C ( P<0.05), and these changes were more obvious in group A compared to group B ( P<0.05) at 48 hrs after treatment. There is less resuscitation fluid volume requirement to maintain adequate stable hemodynamic and urine output in the first 24 hrs in group A and group B compared to group C ( P<0.05).


          Treatment with tiopronin could exert protective effects against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage and multiple-organ dysfunction, and also could reduce the volume of required fluid resuscitation in severely burned patients.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration: a randomized, prospective study.

          High-dose ascorbic acid (vitamin C) therapy (66 mg/kg per hour) attenuates postburn lipid peroxidation, resuscitation fluid volume requirements, and edema generation in severely burned patients. A prospective, randomized study at a university trauma and critical care center in Japan. Thirty-seven patients with burns over more than 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA) hospitalized within 2 hours after injury were randomly divided into ascorbic acid and control groups. Fluid resuscitation was performed using Ringer lactate solution to maintain stable hemodynamic measurements and adequate urine output (0.5-1.0 ml/kg per hour). In the ascorbic acid group (n = 19; mean burn size, 63% +/- 26% TBSA; mean burn index, 57 +/- 26; inhalation injury, 15/ 19), ascorbic acid was infused during the initial 24-hour study period. In the control group (n = 18; mean burn size, 53% +/- 17% TBSA; mean burn index, 47 +/- 13; inhalation injury, 12/18), no ascorbic acid was infused. We compared hemodynamic and respiratory measurements, lipid peroxidation, and fluid balance for 96 hours after injury. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to analyze the data. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, arterial pH, base deficit, and urine outputs were equivalent in both groups. The 24-hour total fluid infusion volumes in the control and ascorbic acid groups were 5.5 +/- 3.1 and 3.0 +/- 1.7 mL/kg per percentage of burn area, respectively (P<.01). In the first 24 hours, the ascorbic acid group gained 9.2% +/- 8.2% of pretreatment weight; controls, 17.8% +/- 6.9%. Burned tissue water content was 6.1 +/- 1.8 vs 2.6 +/- 1.7 mL/g of dry weight in the control and ascorbic acid groups, respectively (P<.01). Fluid retention in the second 24 hours was also significantly reduced in the ascorbic acid group. In the control group, the ratio of PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen at 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after injury was less than that of the ascorbic acid group (P<.01). The length of mechanical ventilation in the control and ascorbic acid groups was 21.3 +/- 15.6 and 12.1 +/- 8.8 days, respectively (P<.05). Serum malondialdehyde levels were lower in the ascorbic acid group at 18, 24, and 36 hours after injury (P<.05). Adjuvant administration of high-dose ascorbic acid during the first 24 hours after thermal injury significantly reduces resuscitation fluid volume requirements, body weight gain, and wound edema. A reduction in the severity of respiratory dysfunction was also apparent in these patients.
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            Free radicals and lipid peroxidation mediated injury in burn trauma: the role of antioxidant therapy.

            Burn trauma produces significant fluid shifts that, in turn, reduce cardiac output and tissue perfusion. Treatment approaches to major burn injury include administration of crystalloid solutions to correct hypovolemia and to restore peripheral perfusion. While this aggressive postburn volume replacement increases oxygen delivery to previously ischemic tissue, this restoration of oxygen delivery is thought to initiate a series of deleterious events that exacerbate ischemia-related tissue injury. While persistent hypoperfusion after burn trauma would produce cell death, volume resuscitation may exacerbate the tissue injury that occurred during low flow state. It is clear that after burn trauma, tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels gradually fall, and increased adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is converted to hypoxanthine, providing substrate for xanthine oxidase. These complicated reactions produce hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, clearly recognized deleterious free radicals. In addition to xanthine oxidase related free radical generation in burn trauma, adherent-activated neutrophils produce additional free radicals. Enhanced free radical production is paralleled by impaired antioxidant mechanisms; as indicated by burn-related decreases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, alpha tocopherol, and ascorbic acid levels. Burn related upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may produce peripheral vasodilatation, upregulate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and promote transcription and translation of numerous inflammatory cytokines. NO may also interact with the superoxide radical to yield peroxynitrite, a highly reactive mediator of tissue injury. Free radical mediated cell injury has been supported by postburn increases in systemic and tissue levels of lipid peroxidation products such as conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reaction products, or malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Antioxidant therapy in burn therapy (ascorbic acid, glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, or vitamins A, E, and C alone or in combination) have been shown to reduce burn and burn/sepsis mediated mortality, to attenuate changes in cellular energetics, to protect microvascular circulation, reduce tissue lipid peroxidation, improve cardiac output, and to reduce the volume of required fluid resuscitation. Antioxidant vitamin therapy with fluid resuscitation has also been shown to prevent burn related cardiac NF-kappaB nuclear migration, to inhibit cardiomyocyte secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, and to improve cardiac contractile function. These data collectively support the hypothesis that cellular oxidative stress is a critical step in burn-mediated injury, and suggest that antioxidant strategies designed to either inhibit free radical formation or to scavage free radicals may provide organ protection in patients with burn injury.
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              Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative mobilization in burn injury.

              A severe burn is associated with release of inflammatory mediators which ultimately cause local and distant pathophysiological effects. Mediators including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are increased in affected tissue, which are implicated in pathophysiological events observed in burn patients. The purpose of this article is to understand the role of oxidative stress in burns, in order to develop therapeutic strategies. All peer-reviewed, original and review articles published in the English language literature relevant to the topic of oxidative stress in burns in animals and human subjects were selected for this review and the possible roles of ROS and RNS in the pathophysiology of burns are discussed. Both increased xanthine oxidase and neutrophil activation appear to be the oxidant sources in burns. Free radicals have been found to have beneficial effects on antimicrobial action and wound healing. However following a burn, there is an enormous production of ROS which is harmful and implicated in inflammation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, immunosuppression, infection and sepsis, tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Thus clinical response to burn is dependent on the balance between production of free radicals and its detoxification. Supplementation of antioxidants in human and animal models has proven benefit in decreasing distant organ failure suggesting a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that oxidative damage is one of the mechanisms responsible for the local and distant pathophysiological events observed after burn, and therefore anti-oxidant therapy might be beneficial in minimizing injury in burned patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                13 August 2019
                : 13
                : 2827-2832
                [1 ]Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Feng-Jun Qin Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital , No. 68, Huinan North Road, Huilongguan Town, Changping District, Beijing100096, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 105 851 6688Email qfjun800@foxmail.com
                © 2019 Qin et al.

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                Page count
                Tables: 6, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Original Research


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