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      Effect of the sintering technique on the ferroelectric and d 33 piezoelectric coefficients of Bi 0.5(Na 0.84K 0.16) 0.5TiO 3 ceramic

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          Abstract

          In the search of lead-free piezoelectric materials, ceramic processing techniques offer potential tools to increase the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in addition to new chemical compositions. Powders of pure BNKT16 (Bi 0.5(Na 0.84K 0.16) 0.5TiO 3) phase were synthesized by sol–gel method with a low crystallization temperature (750 °C). Ceramic samples were sintered by pressureless sintering (PLS), sinter-forging (SF), and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. Structural, morphological, and chemical characterizations were performed by XRD, Raman, EDS, and SEM. Sintered samples by PLS and SF exhibit rod-like grains associated to bismuth volatility. The highest remanent polarization (11.05 μC/cm 2), coercive field (26.2 kV/mm), and piezoelectric coefficient (165 pC/N) were obtained for SF sample. The piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) analysis shows that the crystallites at the nanoscale exhibit piezoelectric phenomenon and the highest piezoelectric response is reported for PLS sample. The presence of the rhombohedral phase, the increase in grain and crystallite size, and the oriented rod-like inclusions favoring the crystallographic texture are facts that enhance the piezoelectric coefficient for BNKT16 piezoceramics.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Adv Ceram
          Journal of Advanced Ceramics
          Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (USA )
          2227-8508
          2226-4108
          01 June 2019
          01 October 2019
          : 8
          : 2
          : 278-288
          Affiliations
          aInstituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 Norte Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, 32310, México
          bCentro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua, México
          cCentro de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Azcapotzalco, Santa Catarina, 02250, Ciudad de México, México
          dCentro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, AP. 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, México
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: H. CAMACHO-MONTES, E-mail: hcamacho@ 123456uacj.mx
          Article
          s40145-019-0314-8
          10.1007/s40145-019-0314-8
          Copyright © The Author(s)

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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